Wednesday, October 5, 2022

Lab Work For Lyme Disease

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Other Lyme Disease Tests

Unboxing IGeneX Lab Lyme Disease Test Kit

Three other tests that may be used to diagnose Lyme disease are polymerase chain reaction , antigen detection and culture testing. They are called direct tests because they detect the bacteria, not just your immune response to it.

PCR multiplies a key portion of DNA from the Lyme bacteria so that it can be detected. While PCR is highly accurate when the Lyme DNA is detected, it produces many false negatives. This is because the Lyme bacteria are sparse and may not be in the sample tested.

Antigen detection tests look for a unique Lyme protein in fluid . Sometimes people whose indirect tests are negative are positive on this test.

Culture is the gold standard test for identifying bacteria. The lab takes a sample of blood or other fluid from the patient and attempts to grow Lyme spirochetes in a special medium.

Although culture tests are generally accepted as proof of infection, the CDC has advised caution on the only commercially available culture test developed by Advanced Laboratory Services. LDo recognizes that the test is new and requires further validation in other studies. However, we believe that informed patients should be able to choose the test if they prefer. Choice is particularly important given the low quality of Lyme disease tests generally.

How Will Pregnancy Affect Treatment For Lyme Disease

Early treatment of Lyme disease during pregnancy is important. Thats because if Lyme disease is left untreated, it can affect the placenta. According to the CDC , transmission of Lyme disease from mother to fetus is possible, though rare.

For pregnant people, treatment includes a round of antibiotics. Certain treatments for Lyme disease may not be used, as they can affect the fetus. If you suspect that you have Lyme disease, talk with a healthcare professional immediately.

Notes On Serological Tests

For patients with illness lasting over a month, only IgG testing should be performed . A positive IgM test alone is not sufficient to diagnose current disease in these patients.

Due to antibody persistence, a positive serological test cannot distinguish between active and past infection.

Serological tests:

  • should not be done as a test of cure
  • cannot be used to measure treatment response

The EIA test:

  • may yield false-positive results when used as a stand-alone test
  • may cross-react with antibodies to commensal or pathogenic spirochetes
  • there may be some viral infections for certain autoimmune diseases

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Common Types Of Testing For Microbes

Testing is getting better, and there are a variety of different ways to test, but none of them are anywhere near 100% accurate. Testing is mostly useful for diagnosing acute illness. This is especially true when symptoms of illness suggest infection with a higher virulence microbe that might respond to acute treatment with antibiotics. New innovations may gradually improve testing for chronic illness associated with stealth microbes.

What Is Lyme Disease

LYME SCI: Analysis shows standard Lyme testing is highly ...

This bacterial infection is spread through the bite of a young deer tick or black-legged tick. These eight-legged creatures, about the size of a poppy seed, can be found in wooded and grassy areas throughout the United States, especially in New England and the Rocky Mountains.

Because these ticks are so small, most people donât realize when theyâre bitten. But the longer a tick stays attached to you, the more likely it is to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi , if the tick is a carrier.

If not found and treated, Lyme disease can lead to problems with your joints, heart, and nervous system. It can even affect your memory.

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Interpret Laboratory Results Based On Pretest Probability

The usefulness of a laboratory test depends on the individual patients pretest probability of infection, which in turn depends on the patients epidemiologic risk of exposure and clinical features of Lyme disease. Patients with a high pretest probabilityeg, a history of a tick bite followed by the classic erythema migrans rashdo not need testing and can start antimicrobial therapy right away.

How Is It Diagnosed

If youâve been outside in an area where ticks are known to live, you should tell your doctor. Theyâll also want to know about the symptoms youâre having. These details are crucial to making a diagnosis of Lyme disease.

Early symptoms that usually occur within the first month after a tick bite can include:

  • Rash at the site of the tick bite that may look like a âbullâs-eyeâ
  • Racing heart
  • Problems with your short-term memory

Symptoms that come and go are common with Lyme disease. They will also depend on the stage of the disease.

Read Also: When Do Lyme Disease Symptoms Appear

What Does An At

Once ordered, an at-home Lyme disease test kit is delivered to your home, where you can collect the sample privately and comfortably. The kit will include the instructions, the sample collector, and the box to return the sample.

Once the results are ready, you will receive them in your email or through the company’s online portal, or they will be sent to your doctors office.

Lyme Disease Is Here Canada Needs To Listen

Reliability of Lab Testing for Lyme Disease

Lyme is not just in remote Canadian areas. Never has been. Ticks infected with the Lyme bacteria can be everywhere in your everyday life in cities, parks, your backyard.

Since 2009, confirmed Canadian Lyme cases have increased 14-fold. And its expected that 80 per cent of the Canadian population in eastern and central Canada will be living in tick habitat regions by 2020.

We have a quiet epidemic on our hands. And its only a matter of time before Lyme

Disease touches your family, your friends, your neighbours, your colleagues.

Canadas test for Lyme Disease is outdated and inadequate. It does not detect all strains of the pathogen that exist today, nor can it reliably capture all stages of the disease, leading to an unacceptably high number of false negative results.

Canada is not ready.

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The Creation Of Lyme Disease On Plum Island: The Logic Of Claims

Science & ResearchThe bacteria responsible for Lyme disease is older than the idea of Plum IslandLyme Disease is no biological warfare agentLyme disease is prevalent in the Northeast.. as well as the Midwest.. and parts of the Northwest.. and Europe… and uh.. Australiathe bacteria responsible for Lyme disease had long since been discovered and identified in EuropeLyme Disease is no benefit to the government, financially at leastResources

  • Herriman, Robert. “Did Lyme Disease Originate out of Plum Island?” Examiner, 30 Oct. 2010. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
  • Cook, Elena. “Spirochete Warfare.” – Borrelia and Other Spirochetes Were Weaponized in the 1930’s. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
  • “Chickenpox: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.” U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
  • Waugh, Rob. “DNA Scans Reveal 5,300-year-old ‘Iceman’ Had Brown Eyes, Relatives in Sardinia – and the First Known Case of Lyme Disease.”Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 29 Feb. 2012. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
  • Sood, Sunil Kumar. Lyme Borreliosis in Europe and North America: Epidemiology and Clinical Practice. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. Print.
  • “Plum Island Animal Disease Center Begins.” S& T PIADC. Homeland Security, 25 June 2014. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.

What Is Lyme Disease How Does My Dog Get Infected

Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Borrelia. The bacteria are most commonly carried by the deer tick . Infection occurs when a dog is bitten by an infected tick. It appears that the disease is not transmitted until the tick has fed for approximately 12 hours. The tick itself becomes infected by feeding on infected mice, birds, deer, and other animals.

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What Still Isnt Known

While guinea pigs were able to develop tick immunity, weve found that animals like mice do not. We plan to test this mRNA vaccine model in other animals, such as rabbits, to better understand how tick immunity varies in different tick hosts. We also plan to develop vaccines for other tick-borne pathogens and test for whether immunity extends to different tick species as well.

Our hope is that vector-based mRNA vaccines targeting the disease carrier can be applied to other vector-borne diseases. However, the feeding strategies of each disease vector is different tick bites are not the same as mosquito bites, for instance. Because the way disease-carriers transmit pathogens may be different, vaccines may need to be modified for each vector.

Direct Methods For Detection Of B Burgdorferi

Lyme diagnosis and lab results  Lyme Tribune

Laboratory tests for direct detection of B. burgdorferi are hampered by very low numbers of spirochetes in the majority of clinical samples. The lack of sensitive, relatively easy, fast, direct tests for the presence of B. burgdorferi is one of the main challenges in the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease. While direct tests for B. burgdorferi can sometimes be helpful, none are required for the diagnosis of the disease. The main direct test modalities used are culture and PCR. Histopathology has limited utility, being used mostly to exclude other diseases, and in the evaluation of suspected cases of borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans,. Detection of B. burgdorferi is difficult and time-consuming due to the extreme scarcity of organismsâ. Warthin-Starry and modified Dieterle silver stains, focus-floating microscopy, as well as direct and indirect immunofluorescence assays with anti-borrelial antibodies have been used, but can be difficult to interpret and require special expertise and careful use of controlsâ. At present, no antigen assays are recommended for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. A research test for detection of OspA has been used in cerebrospinal fluid. An assay to detect antigens in urine has been shown to be unreliable.

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If My Dog Tests Positive Does He Need To Be Treated

The decision to treat Lyme disease is somewhat controversial since many infected dogs show no signs of illness. Factors that would support treatment include:

a moderate to high value of QC6 signs of illness compatible with Lyme disease at the time of testing a history of illness compatible with Lyme disease within the past year the presence of abnormal levels of protein in the urine.

What Testing Do We Offer

We offer three options for having your ticks tested. For each of these options, we will first identify the submitted tick, and ensure the testing is appropriate for that species. The three options are:

  • Lyme Disease
  • Cost: $50.00 CAD
  • Description: Ticks will be tested for the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever. These bacteria include:
  • General Borrelia
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto or Borrelia lonestari
  • Borrelia miyamotoi .
  • Common Infections
  • Cost: $150.00 CAD
  • Description: Ticks will be tested for the seven most common tick-borne pathogens found in their species.
  • For black-legged ticks, these pathogens include:
  • General Borrelia
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto
  • Borrelia miyamotoi
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum
  • Babesia microti
  • For all other tick species, these pathogens include:
  • General Borrelia
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto or Borrelia lonestari
  • Ehrlichia chaffeensis
  • Rickettsia rickettsii
    • Comprehensive
    • Cost: $300.00 CAD
    • Description: Ticks will be tested for all the currently detectable pathogens at Geneticks. These pathogens include:
    • General Borrelia
    • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto or Borrelia lonestari
    • Borrelia miyamotoi
    • Anaplasma phagocytophilum
    • Babesia microti
    • Francisella tularensis
    • Rickettsia rickettsii
    **Expedited testing ensures that your tick testing results are returned to you within 48 hours of receiving your tick at our laboratory. This 48 hour period applies to business days only.

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    Is Treatment 100% Effective

    Scientists are divided on this topic. Some studies suggest that that even long-term antibiotics may not completely clear infection dogs may get sick again at some point after antibiotic treatment is stopped. Other studies suggest that complete clearance of infection is possible with antibiotic treatment. Further research is required to answer this question.

    Contributors: Ryan Llera, BSc, DVM Kristiina Ruotsalo, DVM, DVSc, Dip ACVP Margo S. Tant, BSc, DVM, DVSc

    What Happens During Lyme Disease Testing

    Lyme Disease Blood Tests part 1

    Lyme disease testing is usually done with your blood or cerebrospinal fluid.

    For a Lyme disease blood test:

    • A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

    If you have symptoms of Lyme disease affecting your nervous system, such as neck stiffness and numbness in hands or feet, you may need a test of cerebrospinal fluid . CSF is a clear liquid found in your brain and spinal cord. During this test, your CSF will be collected through a procedure called a lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap. During the procedure:

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    Lyme Disease In Europe And Asia

    Lyme disease can also occur in Europe and Asia, where Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii are most commonly found.

    Ticks infected with a Lyme disease bacterium can be found in woodlands across the European continent from northern Turkey to northern Sweden. However, Lyme disease is considered endemic in central Europe, where the following countries have the highest tick infection rates: Austria, Czech Republic, southern Germany,Switzerland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. In Europe, Lyme disease is primarily transmitted by the castor bean tick.

    Lyme disease has been reported throughout Asia, as well, such as in Russia, Mongolia, northern China, Japan, and Koreaâ âthough infection from a Lyme disease bacterium appears to be relatively uncommon in these areas. In Asia, Lyme disease is transmitted by the taiga tick .

    An Introduction To Lab Testing

    Lyme disease tests can serve as valuable resources for the diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne disease. But its important not to get too hung up on the results.

    The problem of chronic Lyme disease, cant be solved exclusively by looking at lab results, which is something I know from personal experience. In fact, becoming overly obsessed with lab results can hinder the recovery process.

    Lab work provides a snapshot of whats going on inside your body. But multiple other factors including your symptoms, the length of time youve had them, and clinical presentation, as well as the environments in which you live, work, and travel all factor into making an accurate diagnosis.

    Furthermore, the human body is an immensely complex biological machine, with millions of different biochemical functions happening simultaneously. Lab tests provide an ever-so-small glimpse at certain key functions of different systems in the body. From those indicators, determinations can be made about how well the body is functioning and whether illness is present.

    Laboratory assessment, however, is far from absolute. Because the human body is so complex, the ability of lab testing to predict a specific chronic illness, such as one from a tick-borne disease, is often limited. All labs are subject to variability and different interpretations.

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    Your Donation In Action

    The G. Magnotta Lyme Disease Research Lab runs on ideas, intellects and infrastructure. Your donation contributes to a cutting edge lab, support the brilliant minds behind this groundbreaking science and ensure that young researchers have access to top-notch training.

    Highly Qualified Personnel Technology alone does not solve problems people do. Our program is driven by experts and also trains the next generation of scientists in critical thinking and technical skills to confront multidimensional issues like Lyme. Your donation helps us retain and recruit top talent to tackle Lyme.

    High-End Equipment Your dollars help fund our scientists including the large equipment needed to do their critical work.

    Daily Operations High standards coupled with the complexity of studying living systems means high costs to keep the lab running.

    Typical Course Of Lyme Disease Signs

    Toxin Screening
    • Stage 1. In the majority of cases, the first sign of early Lyme disease is the appearance of a bulls-eye skin rash. It usually develops about 1 2 weeks after the bite, although it may appear as soon as 3 days, and as late as 1 month. In some cases, it is never detected. Flu-like symptoms commonly develop early on as well.

    • Stage 2. Untreated stage 1, the infection spreads through the bloodstream and lymph nodes within days to weeks. This may involve the joints, nervous system, and possibly the heart. Multiple rashes may erupt. If the infection affects the nervous system in stage 2, it most often causes weakness or paralysis in the nerves of the face or in nerves of the spine.

    • Stage 3. If the disease remains untreated, a persistent infection can occur after a few weeks or months, leading to prolonged bouts of arthritis and neurologic problems .

    ***Fatigue is a prominent feature of both early and late stages

    The bulls eye rash , which is considered the classic sign of Lyme disease, may take the following course:

    Up to 20% of people infected with Lyme disease do not exhibit the rash. On dark-skinned people, the rash may resemble a bruise. In most patients, any rash fades completely after 3 4 weeks, although secondary rashes may appear during the later stages of disease.

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    Lyme Disease Testing: Why It Continues To Fail To Properly Identify Lyme Disease

    Darin Ingels, ND, FAEM

    Dr. Ingels spoke at a past Restorative Medicine Conference and is on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Restorative Medicine Herbal Certification program.

    When I was working as a microbiologist in the early 1990s, Lyme testing was still pretty new and we didnt know much about Lyme disease and all of the nuances of testing that would soon follow. Now that it is 25 years later, we have learned a great deal about Lyme disease and the pitfalls of Lyme testing have been revealed. Here is a brief excerpt from my upcoming book on Lyme disease, The Lyme Solution: A 5-part Plan to Fight the Inflammatory Auto-Immune Response and Beat Lyme Disease.

    The current recommendation by the CDC for someone who is suspicious of having Lyme disease is to run a two-step process. The first step is to run a Lyme antibody blood test, which measure two types of antibodies against Lyme disease . If this test is positive, then a second test called a Lyme Western Blot should be run to confirm the results of the first test. The Lyme Western Blot looks at a series of specific antibodies against the Lyme organism for both IgG and IgM. If someone has at least 5 out of 10 antibodies for IgG or 2 out of 3 antibodies for IgM, then the Lyme Western Blot is considered positive. The CDC does not recommend doing a Lyme Western Blot IgM test on anyone whose illness occurred within the past month.

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