Sunday, November 27, 2022

Lyme Western Blot Bands Explained

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What Percent Of Cases Of Reasonably Proven Lyme Disease Present Without Erythema Migrans

Western blotting data analysis example and work through LS5001

According to the Centers for Disease Control , erythema migrans occurs in 60-80% of Confirmed cases. Under careful monitoring of patients who develop new onset symptoms, about 20% have systemic symptoms without a rash or other objective sign of Lyme disease .

To be considered a confirmed case by CDC for epidemiologic surveillance in the absence of a rash, a person has to have laboratory evidence of infection and at least one late manifestation of Lyme disease. Late manifestations of Lyme disease considered diagnostic are: joint swelling, facial palsy or other specific signs of nervous system involvement, or specific cardiac conduction defects. The CDC also has criteria for a “probable case”, defined as physician-diagnosed Lyme disease that has laboratory evidence of infection. Suspected cases without an EM are those with laboratory evidence of infection but no clinical information available.

Special Pleading In Chronic Lyme Groups

In online groups, patients are falsely told that they have Lyme disease based on single positive bands such as band 31, band 34, or band 41. The pseudoscience group ILADS seems to encourage confusion and misdiagnoses by asserting a positive 31 or 34 band is highly indicative of Borrelia Burgdorferi exposure.

This is a form of special pleading. Negative tests are ignored because they contradict the beliefs of the group. Most of the bands being negative even after months or years of symptoms is powerful evidence against a Borrelia Burgdoferi infection.

Since bands 31 and 34 almost always accompany other scored bands when a real Borrelia Burgdorferi infection is detected, one or two bands being detected usually indicates a spurious result.

Barbara Johnson, PhD, a scientist with the CDC who specializes in the Lyme disease and serological testing, wrote a very informative chapter in the book Lyme disease: an evidence-based approach in which she explains why bands 31 and 34 arent used in standardized testing.

My Child Had Lyme Disease Got Treated And Is Now Depressed Could This Be A Sign Of A Relapse

Depression is a word that encompasses physical, cognitive, and emotional components. The physical would be poor sleep, fatigue, low energy, lack of sex drive. The cognitive would include poor concentration and trouble making decisions. The emotional would include feeling guilty, hopeless, suicidal, and being unable to enjoy life in any aspect. Chronic symptoms triggered by Lyme disease are most often associated with insomnia or hypersomnia, fatigue, headaches, pain, and, not uncommonly, problems with cognition as well. In other words, chronic Lyme symptoms are most often associated with the physical and cognitive parts of the depressive picture and less often with the emotionally despairing part. When a person presents with the emotional part that is sustained for at least 2 weeks, it may be that a full syndrome depression has emerged related to the Lyme disease or that it is a concurrent but unrelated illness. The emotional aspects of depression might occur secondarily to being sick with a physical illness or directly from an infection affecting the brain or from chemicals affecting the brain that were released by infection outside of the brain. When a person has Lyme encephalitis , the emotional part of depression can be very dramatic. The person might be suddenly tearful for no apparent reason, have very poor frustration tolerance, become paranoid or angered at the least provocation, and appear to have a personality change.

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What Does It Mean If Your 41 Kd Band Result Is Too High

Two types of antibodies are detected in the Western blot test.

This particular marker is called 41 KD Band and hence is a IgG antibody marker. IgG antibodies are a sign of an older infection. In contrast, IgM antibodies reflect a relatively recent infection.

IgM antibodies usually disappear after eight weeks post-exposure. IgG remains in the serum for a very long time.

In the Western blot test there are three bands for IgM and 10 bands for IgG.

Here is the important part:

– You need to have 2 out of 3 for the positive IgM result

– Or you need to have 5 out of 10 for the positive IgG result.

Either one confirms the diagnosis.

Here is the 2nd important part when it comes to a diagnosis:

If a person doesn’t have signs or symptoms of Lyme disease, then the person does not have Lyme disease as the definition of disease requires symptoms.

What could some of those symptoms be?

What are the symptoms of Lyme disease?

Lyme disease symptoms are wide-ranging, with more than a hundred different symptoms recorded. Symptoms can also change over time, as the bacteria spreads throughout the body. To make things more confusing, Lyme disease symptoms will also vary from patient-to-patient. Lyme disease can mimic hundreds of other conditions since its symptoms mirror many medical problems such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome or lupus, and is sometimes known as The Great Imitator because of this.

Symptoms in acute Lyme disease:

– Fever

How Do I Know Whether I Have Received A Sufficiently Long Course Of Antibiotic Therapy

Lyme diagnosis and lab results  Lyme Tribune

Taken together, these study results suggest that repeated antibiotic therapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of patients. However all of these studies also reported troubling adverse effects associated with the IV antibiotic therapy. Given these potentially dangerous risks, it is clear that other safer and more durable treatments are needed for patients with persistent symptoms.

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How Accurate Are Lyme Disease Tests

Medically reviewed by Neka Miller, PhD on August 11, 2020. To give you technically accurate, evidence-based information, content published on the Everlywell blog is reviewed by credentialed professionals with expertise in medical and bioscience fields.

Interested in getting tested for Lyme disease and want to learn more about the testing process? Here, weâll cover several aspects of Lyme disease testing, including accuracy in the context of false negatives, different test types, and moreâso continue reading.

Check for Lyme disease from the convenience of home with the Everlywell at-home Lyme Disease Testâwhich includes both screening and confirmatory testing .

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What The Experts Say

According to the CDC:

  • Patients who have had Lyme disease for longer than 4-6 weeks, especially those with later stages of illness involving the brain or the joints, will almost always test positive.
  • A patient who has been ill for months or years and has a negative test almost certainly does not have Lyme disease as the cause of their symptoms.
  • Serologic testing is generally not useful or recommended for patients with single EM rashes. For this manifestation, a clinical diagnosis is recommended.

Experts around the world agree with the CDC. A 2018 French review of 16 Lyme diagnostic guidelines from 7 countries revealed a global consensus regarding diagnosis at each stage of the infection. The only outlier was the pseudoscience group German Borreliosis Society , a German counterpart to the pseudoscience group ILADS.

I Am Wondering If Columbia University Uses Xenodiagnosis For Detection Of Infectious Diseases

Western Blot / Protein Immunoblot explained

This is an interesting question. Xenodiagnosis in this case refers to allowing an uninfected tick to feed on an individual with suspected infection to see whether the tick is able to suck up spirochetes when the spirochetes might not have been detectable otherwise. As strange as this concept appears, it has been used successfully recently by Dr. Steven Barthold at UC Davis. After being unable to identify persistent infection in a treated infected mouse using the standard PCR and culture techniques, he was then able to identify the spirochetes in these mice after treatment using the xenodiagnosis method. We at Columbia are not using this method on humans. This is a very intriguing scientific question that should be studied in humans.

The Centers for Disease Control publishes national statistics and identifies those counties with the highest rates of Lyme disease in the United States. The web sites of many state health departments provide data on Lyme disease by town of residence.

Support groups can be found by calling the Lyme clinics or Lyme disease organizations in your state. You might also call a national organization, such as the Lyme Disease Association for the names of support groups in your area.

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Why Is It Called Western Blot

W. Burnette definitely gave the technique the name Western blotting as a nod to Southern blotting and because their lab was on the west coast. He developed his technique independently, including the electrophoretic transfer step, but became aware of Starks and Towbins publications before he submitted his in 1979.

High Endemicity Screening Of A Child

A healthy child from an area of high endemicity receives an annual physical. The mother notes that the child enjoys playing in the backyard, which is adjacent to a heavily wooded area.

Serologic testing should not be ordered because the child is asymptomatic. A false-positive test result would expose the child unnecessarily to the risks of treatment. In this scenario, the probability that a positive test represents true infection is less than 25 percent.

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More About Western Blot Testing In North America

The IgG Western Blot test is designed to detect antibodies specific to Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that cause Lyme disease. For Lyme disease in North America, a positive IgG Western Blot test requires at least 5 of 10 measured bands to be positive .

The scored IgG bands are 18 kDa, 24 kDa , 28 kDa, 30 kDa, 39 kDa , 41 kDa flagellin , 45 kDa, 58 kDa , 66 kDa, and 93 kDa.

The Lyme IgM Western Blot test measures 3 different types of antibodies. The North American IgM Western Blot is considered positive only if 2 of 3 IgM bands are positive .

The scored IgM bands are 24 kDa , 39 kDa , and 41 kDa .

According to the CDC, Depending upon the assay, OspC could be indicated by a band of 21, 22, 23, 24 or 25 kDA.

Western Blot Lyme Test: What It Is And How To Read It

When Life Gives You Lyme: ELISA &  Western Blot Tests for Dummies

Lyme disease is a medical condition caused by a bacterial infection and is often difficult to diagnose, because it mimics a variety of other health conditions. To further complicate the matter, the tick that spreads this infection can cause other infections as well, not just Lyme disease.

Luckily, there are laboratory tests that can help aid in the diagnosis. Lab tests identify antibodies from the bacteria and are more accurate if done a few weeks after the infection. ELISA and IFA are the most common lab tests done to detect antibodies to Borrelia Burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme. However, these tests can sometimes give a false positive result. In order to confirm the diagnosis of Lyme, another test called the Western blot test is ordered. PCR is another test that can detect the DNA of the bacteria by using a sample from the joint fluid of patients with chronic arthritis associated with Lyme. A sample from cerebrospinal fluid can be tested if the patients symptoms are affecting the nervous system.

Western Blot Test

While the ELISA/IFA are quantitative tests, the Western blot provides qualitative data. The newest version of the western blot test to detect Lyme disease is called Immuonoblot. The results will look like a bar code, with lines called bands. Each band corresponds to antibodies of different components of the bacterium Borrelia Burgdorferi. The combination of specific bands will help identify if the bacterium is indeed Borrelia.

References:

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How Is It Diagnosed

If youâve been outside in an area where ticks are known to live, you should tell your doctor. Theyâll also want to know about the symptoms youâre having. These details are crucial to making a diagnosis of Lyme disease.

Early symptoms that usually occur within the first month after a tick bite can include:

  • Rash at the site of the tick bite that may look like a âbullâs-eyeâ
  • Racing heart
  • Problems with your short-term memory

Symptoms that come and go are common with Lyme disease. They will also depend on the stage of the disease.

What Can Patients With Chronic Neuropsychiatric Symptoms From Lyme Disease Do To Get Proper Treatment If We Are In A So Called Non

Chronic neuropsychiatric Lyme disease is a confusing entity to treat. That is why it is best to consult with someone who has had considerable experience evaluating these patients. That specialist may then be able to guide you and your doctor regarding the next phase of treatment. For example, while one patient may need additional antibiotics, another may need symptomatic therapies focused more on the residual symptoms. If one lives in an area in which Lyme disease is not common, it can be helpful to ask your doctor whether he or she would consider it useful for you to consult with a doctor from another state who might be more familiar with the latest treatment strategies. Most doctors would appreciate the recommendation of a colleague with more extensive expertise. It helps both the treating doctor and the patient. Your doctor may also wish to call a specialist in another state who has more experience often informal professional to professional consultation is quite helpful. We wish to add however that we have seen many patients who have avoided going to regular doctors or regular psychiatrists because of a fear of being misunderstood. This can be risky because it delays help which that particular doctor may be able to provide. One does not necessarily need to be an expert on neuropsychiatric Lyme disease to treat depression or irritability related to Lyme disease.

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What Is The Best Way To Remove A Tick And What If I Did Not Get The Entire Tick Out

The Centers for Disease Control provides this information about removing a tick: Remove a tick from your skin as soon as you notice it. Use fine-tipped tweezers to firmly grasp the tick very close to your skin. With a steady motion, pull the tick’s body away from your skin. Then clean your skin with soap and warm water. Throw the dead tick away with your household trash. Avoid crushing the tick’s body. Do not be alarmed if the tick’s mouthparts remain in the skin. Once the mouthparts are removed from the rest of the tick, it can no longer transmit the Lyme disease bacteria. If you accidentally crush the tick, clean your skin with soap and warm water or alcohol. Don’t use petroleum jelly, a hot match, nail polish, or other products to remove a tick. View a diagram of how to remove a tick.

Lyme Disease Is Remarkably Difficult To Diagnose

Western blot | Western blotting technique explained

The problem with Lyme disease is that the bacteria can create a hard shell around themselves when inactive so that the blood tests are unable to detect them. This is especially true when the disease has reached the chronic stage. The timing of the symptoms is often used by a medical provider to establish a time line to a tick bite or exposure to a high-risk region where the disease is commonly transmitted.

Because the ticks that can spread Lyme disease are often the size of a pinhead, the ticks might not even be notice. A bulls-eye rash at the bite location is a trademark symptom of Lyme disease, but only about half of the people who are infected with the bacteria develop the rash. Once the disease reaches the chronic stage, chronic arthritis, joint pain, and neurological symptoms begin to appear, sometimes several months after the infection.

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Traditional Lyme Disease Tests Are Not Specific Enough

Lyme disease is caused by the spiral-shaped bacteria Borrelia. There are multiple species and strains of Lyme borreliae . Therefore, tests must be targeted to these multiple species and strains in order to be able to detect them. If a patient is infected with a species or strain of Lyme borreliae that their test cant detect, they will get a false-negative test result and thus risk missing their diagnosis. This can be costly and dangerous.

Many ELISA and Western blot Lyme disease tests are only equipped to detect one strain of one species of Borrelia: Borrelia burgdorferi B31 . This means that those tests are missing infections caused by other strains and/or species of Lyme borreliae.

In one internal study designed to test the validity of the IGeneX ImmunoBlot against traditional Western blot tests, a total of 132 patients were tested by both Lyme Western blots and Lyme IB. 43 patients were seropositive on the ImmunoBlot, and 14 were positive on standard Western blots prepared from a mixture of two species for Bb ss B31 and 297. Thus 29 of the 43 patients tested negative on Western blots i.e., the Western blot totally missed their infections with strains other than Bb ss B31 and 297.

With such limited tests, patients infected with non-B31 species and strains e.g., B. mayonii, B. californiensis, or European species are at risk of receiving false negatives and missing the chance to treat their diseases.

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