Tuesday, April 16, 2024

Bugs That Cause Lyme Disease

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What Is Zika Virus

Why are ticks spreading to cities across Canada

Zika virus is primarily transmitted through infected mosquitos however, sexual transmission has been described. It is a mosquito-transmitted infection related to dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and West Nile virus and is common in Africa and Asia. It did not begin spreading widely in the Western Hemisphere until May 2015, when an outbreak occurred in Brazil.

Diseases From Animals & Insects

Learn how to protect yourself and your family from common diseases that insects, pets, farm animals and wildlife can carry.

Animal & Insect-Borne Diseases

Insects, pets, farm animals and wildlife can carry diseases that affect humans. You can protect yourself and your family from the most common risks from animals.

Insect and spider bites often cause minor swelling, redness, pain and itching. These mild reactions are common and may last from a few hours to a few days. Home treatment is often all that is needed to relieve the symptoms of a mild reaction to common stinging or biting insects and spiders.

However, sometimes animals carry diseases that are harmful to humans. Diseases like Lyme disease and West Nile virus are spread through insect bites. Diseases spread by wildlife or pets include rabies and toxoplasmosis.

Animal Contacts

B.C. is home to about 16 species of bats. They come out in spring when the weather warms and the bugs come out, and go into hiding for the winter when the bugs die off. Most bats do not carry rabies but some do. There are other animals that are considered a lower risk that could also carry rabies, including monkeys, skunks, raccoons, coyotes, bobcats, foxes and other wild animals. On rare occasion, cats and dogs can be infected with the bat strain rabies. Report any animal contact to an Environmental Health Officer to determine if you are at risk for rabies.

How to trap a bat for testing

If I Dont See Bed Bugs Does That Mean I Dont Have A Bed Bug Problem

Just because you cant see bed bugs, does not mean that they are not still there. Bed bugs are rarely seen in the day, out in the open or on the surface of beds or chairs. They have been described as champions of hide-and-seek. So, it is not uncommon to miss the bed bugs altogether. Bed bugs love to hide in the cracks and crevices associated with mattresses, cushions, bed frames and other structures, which is why it is very important to look for telltale symptoms of bed bugs and signs of an infestation, such as shed skins and specks of blood or feces on linens, furniture, mattresses and other areas where the bugs might be hiding.

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A Guide To Ticks And Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is an infection that is caused by bacteria. People get infected when they are bitten by ticks that carry the bacteria responsible for the infection. The infection is called Lyme disease because its first major outbreak was witnessed in Lyme, Connecticut. Lyme disease was first noticed in 1975 but the cause of the disease was still unknown at that time. In 1978, it was discovered that people could get Lyme disease when bitten by ticks. Two years later, Willy Burgdorfer found out that B. burgdorferi bacterium was responsible for the disease. Today, most of the Lyme disease infections in the world are found in Canada, Asia, Europe and the United States of America. A lot of work has been done by scientists in finding out more about the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease.

Ticks carry infectious diseases for both man and animals. Ticks usually embed their heads and attach themselves to you, but they can fall off without you knowing youve been bit. With ticks that carry Lyme disease, a bite from an infected tick displays a certain kind of skin rash. If you develop the rash, its important that you get antibiotic treatment right away because Lyme disease can be painful and debilitating.

What Is Lyme Disease And How Do You Get It

Encephalitis or Lyme Virus Infected Tick Insect Isolated on Whit Stock ...

Lyme disease is an infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme disease is transmitted to people through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. Most people are infected through the bite of tiny, immature ticks called nymphs.

Ticks can attach to any part of the human body, but they prefer hard-to-see places, like the groin, armpits and scalp. In most cases, ticks need to stay attached to their human hosts for at least 36 to 48 hours before the Lyme disease bacterium can be passed along.

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Stage : Small Oval Rashes Or A Reddish Lump

When a tick that causes Lyme disease bites you, it infects you with bacteria. Without treatment, the bacteria can spread to other areas of your body. Stage 2 begins when the bacteria spread to other parts of your body.

During this stage, you may see small, oval rashes on your skin. Some people develop a bluish-red lump.

Where you see these signs: Because the infection has spread, small rashes can appear anywhere on your skin, except for your palms and soles. Most rashes appear on the arms, legs, and face.

Some people develop a lump, which your doctor may refer to as borrelial lymphocytoma. In children, this lump tends to appear on an earlobe. Adults often see a raised growth form around a nipple.

Borrelial lymphocytoma on a childs ear

This can appear in stage 2 of Lyme disease.

What you may see on your skin: The rashes that appear during stage 2 differ from the rash that can appear in stage 1. In stage 2, the rashes stay the same size rather than grow larger.

When the rashes, lump, and symptoms begin: About 30 to 45 days after the tick bites you, you may notice rashes or a lump. These can also take longer to appear, sometimes six months or more.

Some people develop symptoms, which make them feel ill, including:

  • Shortness of breath and dizzy spells

  • Bells palsy, which causes one half of the face to droop

  • Heart problems, such as chest pains or an irregular heartbeat

If The Tick Is Still Attached

Finding a tick on your skin can be quite difficult, Ostfeld says especially during the spring and early summer months when ticks are in their nymph stage, and so are roughly the size of a poppy seed. You have to closely examine your skin and then ask someone to scan the places you cant see in order to spot them. While adult ticks are a little larger, theyre still difficult to identify.

Running your hands over those parts of your body ticks tend to bite is another way to find them before theyve dropped off.

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Treatment Of Erythema Migrans Rash

People treated with appropriate antibiotics in the early stages of Lyme disease usually recover rapidly and completely. Early diagnosis and proper antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease can help prevent late Lyme disease. Treatment regimens listed in the following table are for the erythema migrans rash, the most common manifestation of early Lyme disease. These regimens may need to be adjusted depending on a persons age, medical history, underlying health conditions, pregnancy status, or allergies. Consult an infectious disease specialist regarding individual patient treatment decisions. For treating other manifestations, see www.cdc.gov/Lyme/treatment.

Lyme Disease treatment regimens

30 mg/kg per day orally, divided into 2 doses 500 mg per dose 14

*When different durations of antibiotics are shown to be effective for the treatment of Lyme disease, the shorter duration is preferred to minimize adverse effects, including infectious diarrhea and antimicrobial resistance.

NOTE: For people intolerant of amoxicillin, doxycycline, and cefuroxime, the macrolide azithromycin may be used, although it is less effective. People treated with azithromycin should be closely monitored to ensure that symptoms resolve.

How Do I Know If Ive Been Bitten By A Tick

Lyme Disease Prophylaxis After Tick Bite

Detecting tick bites can be tricky. Unlike the bites of mosquitoes and other insects, tick bites do not tend to cause itching or immediate skin irritation.

Every blood-feeding arthropod and insect introduces saliva into the wound, explains Jonathan Day, PhD, an emeritus professor of medical entomology at the University of Florida. In the case of mosquitoes and some other biting insects, this saliva contains proteins that prevent the bite wound from clotting, which would slow the outflow of blood and therefore disrupt feeding, Dr. Day explains.

Apart from preventing your blood from clotting, these proteins also trigger a reaction from your immune system. This reaction produces redness, swelling, itching, and all the other unpleasant skin irritations that come with bug bites, Day explains.

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But tick bites are different. Ticks suppress that reaction with immunosuppressants in their saliva, Ostfeld explains.

Since you cant feel a ticks bite, you can detect it in one of two ways:

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See Your Doctor After A Tick Bite If You Notice A Bulls

Do the same if you notice a bite either from a tick you found or from an unknown source thats not acting like a mosquito bite. If the rash is any bigger than a highly localized red spot like a mosquito bite then go see a doctor, he says. Likewise, see your doctor if you feel any flu-like symptoms, muscle aches, or chills within a week to 10 days of the bite, all of which can be indicative of tick-borne infections, he adds.

If a doctor suspects you may have contracted Lyme or some other type of infection, he or she will prescribe antibiotics, either oral or possibly intravenous, to treat the problem.

Diseases Caused By Bed Bugs

There are a variety of diseases that bed bugs can transmit, including Chagas disease, dengue fever, and more. Bed bugs are not known to transmit any diseases to humans, but they can serve as vectors for other diseases. Chagas disease is caused by a protozoan parasite and is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. Dengue fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. There is no specific treatment for either of these diseases, and both can be deadly. Bed bugs are a public health nuisance and should be reported to your local health department if you suspect you have an infestation.

Bed bugs are capable of transmitting deadly diseases, according to studies. Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the most common diseases that these pests transmit to humans. The disease is not spread by the bite, but rather by the interaction of the bite with bed bug feces. Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, can develop as a result of this. On a night-time basis, bed bugs were considered nocturnal insects. During the day, they move around and eat. Because they dislike the light, they conceal creases and folds in the dark during the day.

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Are Some Locations More At Risk Than Others

Yes and no. There are areas in which the bacteria is endemic meaning the disease is established and present more or less continually in that community.

In Canada, blacklegged tick populations have been confirmed or are growing in the following areas:

  • Southern British Columbia.
  • Southern New Brunswick and Grand Manan Island.
  • South shore and northern mainland Nova Scotia.

However, it is important to note that ticks can be spread by birds, in particular songbirds that feed off the forest floor. Because these birds are migratory, there is the potential for new populations of the bacteria to spread across the country. This fact means that you do not have to be in an endemic or high-risk area to be at risk of contacting ticks and the disease.

Seek Medical Care Early To Prevent Lyme Disease From Progressing

Pin by Maria Wheeler on Lyme Disease

Its easy to get bit by a tick and not know it. Most people dont feel a tick on their skin or the bite. Checking your skin for ticks after spending time outdoors can help you find a tick and remove it.

Removing a tick can prevent Lyme disease. A tick must be attached to your skin for at least 36 hours to infect you with the bacteria that cause Lyme disease.

Its not always possible to find a tick, so its important to pay close attention to your skin. If you notice any signs of Lyme disease or develop a rash, get medical care right away. Ticks can cause other serious diseases, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Related AAD resources

ImagesImage 1: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Image Library, Last accessed May 11, 2017.

Images 2, 3, and 7: Used with permission of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 64:619-36.

Images 4 and 5: Getty Images

Image 6: Used with permission of the American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides.

ReferencesBhate C and Schwartz RA.

  • Lyme disease: Part I. Advances and perspectives. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 64:619-36.

  • Lyme disease: Part II. Management and prevention. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011 64:639-53.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

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How Is Lyme Disease Transmitted

Ticks usually live in woods or tall grasslands in Canada, the United States, Europe, and Asia. Ticks can become infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by feeding on infected wild animals, and then can spread the bacteria when they feed on blood from the host. Ticks cannot fly – they hang onto small bushes or tall grasses and are usually found close to the ground. They wait for an animal or person to pass near them and when the animal or person makes contact, the ticks attach themselves to the skin to feed.

In North America, Lyme disease is transmitted mainly by two species of ticks:

  • Blacklegged tick , Ixodes scapularis.
  • Western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus.

The Public Health Agency of Canada states that there no evidence that Lyme disease can spread from person-to-person. Pets, especially dogs, can get Lyme disease, but there is no evidence that pets can spread the infection directly to humans. They may, however, carry infected ticks into the home or yard which may increase the chance of transmission.

Is Lyme Disease An Arthropod Disease

There is no definitive answer to this question as the research on Lyme disease is ongoing and constantly evolving. However, some experts believe that Lyme disease may be caused by an arthropod, such as a tick, which transmits the bacteria that causes the disease. Others believe that Lyme disease is not an arthropod disease, but is instead caused by a virus or other type of pathogen.

Borrelia burgdorferi, a bacterium, causes Lyme disease, which causes inflammation. Blacklegged ticks can spread this bacterium to humans by biting them. When one or more joints in the body become swollen or painful as a result of Lyme arthritis, this is one of the most common manifestations. In some cases, inflammation can spread to the brain, causing damage to specific areas of the brain.

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How Do I Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

When it comes to controlling bed bugs, do it yourself should not be anyones motto. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to eradicate 76 percent of pest professionals say they are the most difficult pest to control. As such, people who suspect a bed bug infestation should turn to a qualified pest professional with expertise in treating these pests. The pest professional will evaluate the extent of an infestation and recommend the best course of treatment. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention endorses that appropriate control of a bed bug infestation requires an experienced pest management professional and recommends that victims be advised against attempting to control measures themselves.

For more information on bed bugs, watch the video below or check out our All Things Bed Bugs hub.

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What Are The Dangers Of Zika Virus To Pregnant Women

Rising tick population prompts Lyme disease warning in California

Zika presents the greatest risk to pregnant women because the virus can spread from the mother to her baby. This may increase a babys risk of developing microcephaly, a condition in which the babys head size is smaller than normal due to abnormal brain development. It can also increase the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth.

Pregnant women who are concerned they might have been exposed to the Zika virus should contact their obstetricians immediately. If you are considering pregnancy and are concerned that you might have been exposed or are considering travel to a region where the Zika virus has been reported, talk with your primary care physician or gynecologist before trying to conceive. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises women who are pregnant to consider postponing travel to these areas. If you have traveled to an area with Zika virus transmission, we advise you to wait eight weeks before trying to conceive. If your male partner has traveled to an area where Zika virus is present, consider talking to your doctor about testing for the disease before trying to conceive.

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Bedbugs: The Emotional Trauma They Can Cause

There is no evidence that bed bugs spread diseases. When bed bugs are present, they can cause itching and loss of sleep, so it can be irritating. Excessive scratching can exacerbate the itch, increasing the chances of developing a secondary skin infection. According to multiple research studies, bed bugs, emotional trauma, and long-term mental health issues are all linked. Its possible that severe side effects, such as severe anxiety, sleeplessness, difficulty concentrating, obsessiveness, and hypervigilance, can be taken as a form of posttraumatic stress disorder. Bedbugs do not cause skin damage to humans. As a result, they cause dark and dry spaces to form, such as the seams of a mattress. They can also burrow into crevices in bed frames, furniture, and curtains. The presence of bedbugs is the most visible sign of an infestations.

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