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How Is Lyme Disease Transmitted

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What Are The Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

How Has Lyme Disease Spread in the US?

The list of possible symptoms is long, and symptoms can affect every part of the body. The following are the most common symptoms of Lyme disease. But symptoms are slightly different for each person.

The primary symptom is a red rash that:

  • Can appear several days after infection, or not at all

  • Can last up to several weeks

  • Can be very small or grow very large , and may resemble a “bulls-eye”

  • Can mimic such skin problems as hives, eczema, sunburn, poison ivy, and flea bites

  • Can itch or feel hot, or may not be felt at all

  • Can disappear and return several weeks later

Several days or weeks after a bite from an infected tick, you may have flu-like symptoms such as the following:

Weeks to months after the bite, the following symptoms may develop:

  • Neurological symptoms, including inflammation of the nervous system and weakness and paralysis of the facial muscles

  • Heart problems, including inflammation of the heart and problems with heart rate

  • Eye problems, including inflammation

Months to a few years after a bite, the following symptoms may include:

  • Inflammation of the joints

  • Neurological symptoms including numbness in the extremities, tingling and pain, and difficulties with speech, memory, and concentration

Some people may develop post-Lyme disease syndrome . A condition also known as chronic Lyme disease includes PLDS, but also other syndromes. Usually, these are characterized by persistent musculoskeletal and peripheral nerve pain, fatigue, and memory impairment.

How Is Lyme Disease Treated

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:

  • How old you are

Lyme disease in the earliest stage is usually treated with antibiotics for 2 to 3 weeks.

Treatment will also be considered based on these and other factors:

  • If you are bitten by a tick that tests positive for the bacteria that causes Lyme disease

  • If you are bitten by a tick and have any of the symptoms

  • If you are bitten by a tick and are pregnant

  • If you are bitten by a tick and live in a high-risk area

Is Lyme Disease Contagious Through Salvia Or Blood

Lyme disease cannot be passed from person to person through saliva. Kissing or sharing the same cup with an individual with Lyme disease is not cause for concern. Lyme disease cannot travel through saliva from one person to another.

Lyme disease is detectable in blood tests. Since it is present in the bloodstream, experts advise against donating blood until after completing the prescribed course of antibiotics. Delaying blood donation is a merely preventative measure, as there have been no reported cases of Lyme disease transmission through blood transfusions.

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When Do These Signs Usually Start To Appear

Truth is, most dogs that have been exposed to Lyme disease are not showing symptoms right away. At times, it takes weeks or even months before it becomes apparent from the time they were bitten.

On the other hand, if you notice that your dog feels fatigued, showing flu-like symptoms and sudden loss of appetite, you might want them to be checked by your trusted vet. It might be start of something. Better safe than sorry.

Can I Get Lyme Disease Through A Blood Transfusion

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The CDC Says:

Although no cases of Lyme disease have been linked to blood transfusion, scientists have found that the Lyme disease bacteria can live in blood that is stored for donation. Individuals being treated for Lyme disease with an antibiotic should not donate blood. Individuals who have completed antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease may be considered as potential blood donors. Information on the current criteria for blood donation is available on the Red Cross website .

Research Shows:

While research might not show Lyme Disease has been transmitted YET, there are several people claiming they got infected through a blood transmission. There is research showing spirochetes have been found in the blood stored for transfusions. Several of the co infections such as Babesia, Anaplasmosis and Erlichiosis have now been proven to be transmitted.

Also Check: What Blood Test Shows Lyme Disease

What Is The Treatment For Lyme Disease

Patients treated with antibiotics in the early stages of Lyme disease usually recover quickly and completely. Antibiotics commonly used for treatment include doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime axetil. Patients with certain neurologic or cardiac forms of illness may require additional treatment. It is important to speak with your health care provider if you think you might have Lyme disease. The best treatment for Lyme disease is prevention and awareness.

What Are Risk Factors For Developing Lyme Disease

Lyme disease occurs most frequently in children 5-14 years of age and adults 40-50 years of age. The most substantial risk factor for Lyme disease is exposure to the ticks located in the high-risk areas of the country listed above, particularly in the New England states as well as Minnesota and Wisconsin. Additional risk factors include recreational and occupational exposure to ticks and outdoor activities, including gardening, in woods and fields in the high-risk areas. No transplacental transmission of Lyme disease from the mother to the unborn child has ever been described. Again, Lyme disease is not contagious from one person to another.

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Can You Get Lyme Disease Without A Tick Bite

Ticks carry the bacteria that causes Lyme disease in their own blood and can pass it to you when theyre attached to your skin and feeding. The good news is that not all ticks carry Lyme disease. Before a tick can transmit Lyme disease to you it has to get the infection from biting another infected animal.

How Deer Ticks Get Lyme Disease

CDC: How to spot signs, symptoms of Lyme disease

Deer ticks have four stages of life: egg, larvae, nymph and adult. It is in the larvae stage when a tick can first latch on to a mammal and begin to feed on the blood of that animal. Because they are still very small, and because ticks live on the ground, the first mammals they attach to are usually small as well.

Rabbits, birds, moles, and rats are a few examples of the animals deer ticks latch onto for feeding. Any of these animals could be carrying Lyme disease. When the tick feeds on an animal with Lyme, it then acquires the bacteria of Lyme disease.

Deer ticks quickly molt into nymphs, growing larger in size and giving them the ability to latch onto larger animals. As they continue to grow into adult ticks, they find animals like whitetail deer to feed on. Deer can also have Lyme disease and pass it onto the tick feeding on them. The deer tick, once infected, can transmit Lyme disease to other mammals, including humans.

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Stage : Later Symptoms

  • shooting pains, numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • heart palpitations

These symptoms may go away without treatment within a few weeks or months. However, some people develop chronic Lyme disease and have lasting symptoms.

Around of people who do not receive treatment for the disease develop recurrent episodes of arthritis with severe swelling, especially in the large joints.

The Committees Discussion Of The Evidence

1.8.1. Interpreting the evidence The outcomes that matter most

The key outcome of interest was a transmission risk, incidence orprevalence estimate of Lyme disease through verticaltransmission, sexual transmission or transmission through bloodproducts. Transmission risk was defined as the number ofeffective contacts per unit of time divided by the total number ofcontacts between infectious and susceptible individuals per timeunit. In the absence of studies reporting a transmission risk,incidence or prevalence estimate, any observational studyexcluding case reports reporting a person-to-person transmissionwas included in this review.

No evidence was found for transmission of Lyme disease throughsexual contact or blood products. For vertical transmission onlycohort studies, case-control studies and case seriesreporting The quality of the evidence

Indirect evidence came from 11 studies reporting outcomes relatedto vertical transmission. Quality assessment of the individualstudies was carried out according to an adapted version of TheJoanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for StudiesReporting Prevalence and Incidence Data. Although none of theincluded studies reported incidence or prevalence data, theJoanna Briggs Institute checklist was chosen because of the typeof evidence identified for this review. Benefits and harms

1.8.2. Cost effectiveness and resource use

1.8.3. Other factors the committee took into account

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Preventing Tick Bites And Lyme Disease

There’s currently no Lyme disease vaccine available for humans. However, there are clinical trials taking place in Europe and the U.S.

The best way to protect yourself from tick-borne diseases is to prevent tick bites. Check your provincial public health authority to find out where infected ticks are most likely to be found.

  • Wear light coloured, long-sleeved shirts and pants to spot ticks easily.
  • Tuck your shirt into your pants, and your pants into your socks.
  • Wear closed-toe shoes.
  • Apply insect repellent containing DEET or Icaridin to clothing and exposed skin .
  • Wear permethrin-treated clothing .
  • Walk on cleared paths or trails.
  • Keep children and pets from wandering off paths.
  • Avoid using trails created by animals , as ticks are often found on the grass and plants along these trails.

Do a check for ticks on yourself and your:

  • Outdoor gear, such as backpacks
  • Shower or bathe as soon as possible, as it can help you find unattached ticks. If you don’t shower or bathe, do a full-body tick check on yourself and your children.
  • If you find an attached tick, remove it as soon as possible.
  • To kill unattached ticks on your clothing, put dry clothes in a dryer on high heat for at least 10 minutes. If your clothes are damp, you may need to dry them for longer.
  • If you wash your clothes, use hot water and dry on high heat. Ticks can survive a cold/warm wash cycle.
  • prune shrubs and trees to allow sunlight to filter through
  • place playground sets on a mulch or wood chip surface
  • Lyme Disease Transmission Can Happen Any Time Of The Year


    A lot of people think that acquiring Lyme disease peaks in the warmer seasons or summer time. Well, you better hold that thought. Contrary to popular, infection is all-year round. Considering the temperature, weather, and infected ticks.

    The advice given by Companion Animal Parasite Council among pet owners, dont let your guard down. Protect your dog all throughout the year.

    Also Check: Which Ticks Transmit Lyme Disease

    What Causes Lyme Disease In Dogs

    Borrelia Burgdorferi is the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. In the US alone, Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease that has almost become a household name.

    The chance of getting Lyme disease is high, especially if you spend most of your time in wooded or grassy areas. If it happens that you live or in such location, take necessary precautions to avoid catching one. Mind you, Lyme disease not only affect dogs but humans too.

    Racial Differences In Incidence

    Lyme disease is reported primarily in whites, although it occurs in individuals of all races. No genetic explanation is known for this the disparity most likely stems from social or environmental factors and possibly to the fact that erythema migrans is more difficult to diagnose in dark-skinned individuals.

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    Can I Catch Lyme Disease From My Dog

    Dogs are not a direct source of infection for people. Lyme disease cant be transmitted from one pet to another, nor from pets to humans, except through tick bites. However, a carrier tick could come into your house on your dogs fur and get on you.

    If your dog is diagnosed with Lyme disease, you and any other pets have probably been in the same outdoor environment and may also be at risk, so it is a good idea to consult with your physician and veterinarian to see whether you should test other pets or family members.

    Is It Possible To Prevent Lyme Disease In Dogs

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    Fortunately, Lyme disease in dogs are preventable. Assuming that you invest in tick preventive products. Though you must know that dogs are vulnerable to tickborne diseases and tick bites. Hence, the use of tick preventive products.

    Ticks are very small. Thus, making their bites almost undetectable. Add the fact that the signs of tickborne disease have a delay rate of 1 to 3 weeks. Therefore, you must be monitoring your dog closely if they show any changes in appetite or behavior, especially if you have a gut feeling that theyve been bitten by a tick.

    Luckily, there are other ways to protect your dog from tick bites as well as tickborne diseases aside from tick preventive products like:

    • Steering clear of grassy or wooded areas
    • Sticking to trails when outdoors
    • Perform tick checks daily
    • Discuss Lyme vaccine with your vet

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    Where Do Ticks Live

    Humid and moist environments, these areas serve as the perfect breeding ground for ticks. Nevertheless, these ticks are very adaptable. Generally, ticks live closely to their chosen hosts including:

    If you notice or suspect that part of your home has this kind of environment, start taking action. You dont want to face a tick infestation at a later time.

    Biological Control Of Ticks

    In areas where Lyme disease is endemic, it is desirable to control populations of native ticks, which transmit several pathogens to humans causing Lyme and other diseases. We are seeking environmentally safe and effective means of controlling tick populations using the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, a native species known to attack ticks under some circumstances. Our approach is considered ‘augmentative biocontrol’ because it consists of increasing the probability of contact between ticks and natural enemies, thus augmenting the effects of potential control agents.

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    Who Is At Risk

    Many occupations may be at risk, including forestry, farming, veterinarians, construction, landscaping, ground keepers, park or wildlife management, and anyone who either works outside or has contact with animals that may carry ticks

    Similarly, any person who spends a lot time outdoors , especially in grassy or wooded areas may also be at risk.

    How Is Lymes Disease In Dogs Transmitted

    Lyme Disease in Dogs: Most Important Information for You

    Lymes disease in dogs is caused by Borrella burgdoferi, which is primarily carried in deer ticks. The tick carrying the bacteria has to remain attached to the animal’s skin for at least one day for the bacteria to be transmitted, but deer ticks are very small and can easilygo unseen for days. If left untreated, Lymes disease in dogs can cause numerous problems including heart, joint, kidney and neurological issues.

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    What Are The Complications Of Lyme Disease

    Lyme disease affects people differently. Relapse and incomplete treatment responses happen. Relapse and incomplete treatment responses happen. Complications of untreated early-stage disease include:

    • Frequent hospitalizations to manage the disease

    Some of these complications result in chronic, debilitating conditions.

    Some people may develop post-Lyme disease syndrome . A condition also known as chronic Lyme disease includes PLDS, but also other syndromes. Usually, these are characterized by persistent musculoskeletal and peripheral nerve pain, fatigue, and memory impairment.

    Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

    A circular or oval shape rash around a tick bite can be an early symptom of Lyme disease in some people.

    The rash can appear up to 3 months after being bitten by an infected tick, but usually appears within 1 to 4 weeks. It can last for several weeks.

    The rash can have a darker or lighter area in the centre and might gradually spread. It’s not usually hot or itchy.

    The rash may be flat, or slightly raised, and look pink, red, or purple when it appears on white skin. It can be harder to see the rash on brown and black skin and it may look like a bruise.

    Some people also get flu-like symptoms a few days or weeks after they were bitten by an infected tick, such as:

    • a high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
    • tiredness and loss of energy

    Some people with Lyme disease develop more severe symptoms months or years later.

    This is more likely if treatment is delayed.

    These more severe symptoms may include:

    • pain and swelling in joints
    • nerve problems such as pain or numbness
    • trouble with memory or concentration

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    How Ticks Find Their Hosts

    Ticks can’t fly or jump. Instead, they wait for a host, resting on the tips of grasses and shrubs in a position known as “questing”. While questing, ticks hold onto leaves and grass by their lower legs. They hold their upper pair of legs outstretched, waiting to climb onto a passing host. When a host brushes the spot where a tick is waiting, it quickly climbs aboard. It then finds a suitable place to bite its host.

    How Is Lyme Disease Diagnosed

    What is Lyme disease?

    Lyme disease is difficult to diagnose because symptoms are not consistent and may mimic other conditions. The primary symptom is a rash, but it may not be present in up to 20% of cases.

    Diagnosis for Lyme disease must be made by a healthcare provider experienced in recognizing Lyme disease. Diagnosis is usually based on symptoms and a history of a tick bite. Testing is generally done to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions. This may need blood and other lab tests.

    Research is underway to develop and improve methods for diagnosing Lyme disease.

    The symptoms of Lyme disease may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

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    What Causes Lyme Disease

    Lyme disease is caused by bacteria that is spread to humans by tick bites. The ticks that carry the spirochete are:

    • Black-legged deer tick

    • Western black-legged tick

    Ticks prefer to live in wooded areas, low-growing grasslands, and yards. Not all ticks carry the Lyme disease bacteria. Depending on the location, anywhere from less than 1% to more than 50% of the ticks are infected with it.

    While most tick bites are harmless, several species can cause life-threatening diseases. Tick-borne diseases include:

    • Rocky Mountain spotted fever

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