The Damage Lyme Disease Can Do
Lyme disease can damage all of the bodys systems. Specifically, the illness can wreak havoc on:
- The heart and circulatory system
- The central nervous system
- Gastrointestinal system
So, can Lyme disease cause damage to the renal system? Yes. Lets get to the bottom of how that occurs, and what can happen if it does.
Signs And Symptoms Of Untreated Lyme Disease
Seek medical attention if you observe any of these symptoms and have had a tick bite, live in an area known for Lyme disease, or have recently traveled to an area where Lyme disease occurs.
Untreated Lyme disease can produce a wide range of symptoms, depending on the stage of infection. These include fever, rash, facial paralysis, and arthritis.
The appearance of the erythema migrans rash can vary widely.
- Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes may occur in the absence of rash
- Erythema migrans rash :
- Occurs in approximately 70 to 80 percent of infected persons
- Begins at the site of a tick bite after a delay of 3 to 30 days
- Expands gradually over several days reaching up to 12 inches or more across
- May feel warm to the touch but is rarely itchy or painful
- Sometimes clears as it enlarges, resulting in a target or bulls-eye appearance
- May appear on any area of the body
- Does not always appear as a classic erythema migrans rash
- Severe headaches and neck stiffness
- Additional EM rashes on other areas of the body
- Arthritis with severe joint pain and swelling, particularly the knees and other large joints.
- Intermittent pain in tendons, muscles, joints, and bones
- Heart palpitations or an irregular heart beat
- Episodes of dizziness or shortness of breath
- Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
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Biosignature Testing For Differentiating Eld Patients From Hc And Eld Patients From Mono Patients
To assess whether the biosignatures developed possess diagnostic value, MFs with a 2.0-fold change between ELD versus HC and ELD versus MONO were evaluated by linear discriminant analysis followed by cross-validation . Metabolites with a 2.0-fold change between the two comparator groups were utilized to down-select the number of metabolites to those with a greater discriminatory value. The results of these analyses are shown in Table . LDA followed by leave-one-out cross-validation correctly classified 12 of 14 ELD and 12 of 14 HC when the positive-ion mode biosignature list was used . However, the negative-ion mode metabolic biosignature was slightly less accurate in classifying ELD samples , but was equal to the positive ion-mode biosignatures for classifying HC . When the metabolic biosignatures that differentiate ELD and MONO were tested 12 of 14 ELD and 14 of 14 MONO were correctly classified using the positive-ion mode metabolic biosignature and 13 of 13 ELD and 13 of 13 MONO were correctly classified when using the negative-ion mode metabolic biosignature .
Table 1 LDA Followed by Cross-Validation for Classification of ELD, MONO and HC groups.Figure 5
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Conventional Treatment Approaches To Ic
For the treatment of IC, theres one FDA-approved drug called pentosan polysulfate sodium, or Elmiron, which was approved back in 1996. Unfortunately, Elmiron is only helpful in approximately 38% to 61% of patients, and it can take several months before patients notice improvements. It can also come with a host of unwanted side effects such as digestive distress, hair loss, itching, or skin rash.
But if your symptoms are due to a microbe like Borrelia, Bartonella, Mycoplasma, or Ureaplasma, theres a good chance pentosan polysulfate sodium wont do a whole lot for you because its failing to address the underlying issue of a hampered immune system.
In addition to pentosan polysulfate sodium, other conventional treatments for IC include:
Diagnosis Of Lyme Disease
to take a sample of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord . Fragments of the bacteriaâs genetic material may be present and detected using the polymerase chain reaction technique Polymerase chain reaction Genetic diagnostic technologies are scientific methods that are used to understand and evaluate an organism’s genes. Genes are segments of deoxyribonucleic… read more . This technique produces many copies of a gene and enables doctors to identify Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria rapidly.
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Urinary Dysfunction In Lyme Disease
Lyme disease, which is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is associated with a variety of neurological sequelae. We describe 7 patients with neuro-borreliosis who also had lower urinary tract dysfunction. Urodynamic evaluation revealed detrusor hyperreflexia in 5 patients and detrusor areflexia in 2. Detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia was not noted on electromyography in any patient. We observed that the urinary tract may be involved in 2 respects in the course of Lyme disease: 1) voiding dysfunction may be part of neuro-borreliosis and 2) the spirochete may directly invade the urinary tract. In 1 patient bladder infection by the Lyme spirochete was documented on biopsy. Neurological and urological symptoms in all patients were slow to resolve and convalescence was protracted. Relapses of active Lyme disease and residual neurological deficits were common. Urologists practicing in areas endemic for Lyme disease need to be aware of B. burgdorferi infection in the differential diagnosis of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Conservative bladder management including clean intermittent catheterization guided by urodynamic evaluation is recommended.
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Arthritis Caused By Lyme Disease
There are many causes for arthritis, and your veterinarian will focus on differentiating arthritis initiated by Lyme disease from other inflammatory arthritic disorders, such as trauma and degenerative joint disease.
Immune-mediated diseases will also be considered as a possible cause of the symptoms. X-rays of the painful joints will allow your doctor to examine the bones for abnormalities.
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The Interstitial Cystitis Lyme Connection
Because of my own journey with chronic Lyme disease, my professional interests shifted focus to that area of study. Consequently, the more Lyme patients I speak with, the more Ive encountered those who suffer from bladder pain and symptoms consistent with IC. Im also hearing from men with chronic Lyme who have bladder symptoms and chronic prostatitis .
And when I remember back to patients from the past, those coping with IC frequently had chronic pain in other areas of the body. Many of them, in fact, also had fatigue and symptoms common to chronic Lyme disease and fibromyalgia which got my wheels turning. This symptomatic overlap made me believe there had to be a microbial connection.
Borrelia, the microbe commonly associated with Lyme disease, could be a culprit. Previous research has found Borrelia in bladder biopsies and in the urine of people diagnosed with Lyme. The study didnt show an active infection was present, but perhaps a past infection was the spark that set off an array of bladder symptoms.
Additionally, people with Bartonella, a common coinfection, have been known to experience symptoms affecting the urinary system, such as bladder irritation and urinary frequency.
However, I would lay odds on the often overlooked Mycoplasma and a closely related bacterium called Ureaplasma as chief instigators of bladder discomfort. About 75% of people with chronic Lyme disease have been found to harbor at least one species of Mycoplasma.
What Is Neurologic Lyme Disease
Neurologic symptoms of Lyme disease occur when the Lyme disease bacteria affect the peripheral or central nervous systems.
- Cranial nerve involvement: When the cranial nerves are affected, facial palsy can occur on one or both sides of the face.
- Peripheral nerve involvement: When the peripheral nerves are affected, patients can develop radiculoneuropathy which can cause numbness, tingling, shooting pain, or weakness in the arms or legs.
- Central nervous system involvement: When the central nervous system is affected, Lyme meningitis can cause fever, headache, sensitivity to light, and stiff neck.
Out of every 100 patients whose cases are reported to CDC, 9 have facial palsy, 4 have radiculopathy, and 3 have meningitis or encephalitis. Because of reporting practices, this statistic may overestimate how often these manifestations are seen by clinicians.
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Prediction And Verification Of Mfs
The workflow utilized to assign presumptive metabolite identification of the MFs comprising the four metabolic biosignatures developed with a 1.5-fold change cutoff is described in Supplementary Fig. . Experimental accurate masses were searched in the HMDB with a tolerance of 15 ppm to obtain putative metabolite identifications. Plant specific metabolites, alkaloids, non-endogenous metabolites and peptides were excluded from the results. Level identification was performed using the guidelines outlined in the Metabolomics Standards Initiative,. A RT window of ±10sec was applied as a cut-off to match the urine metabolite with the authentic standard.
Chronic Lyme Disease Vs Ptlds
The terms chronic Lyme disease and Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome are sometimes used interchangeably. However, PTLDS is slightly more restrictive, referring to patients who have received treatment for Lyme disease but go on to experience Lyme disease symptoms. It does not include those who received a misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis and have developed chronic symptoms of Lyme disease before receiving any kind of treatment.
The CDC defines PTLDS as generalized and/or recurring pain, fatigue, and cognitive difficulties that last for more than 6 months after treatment. These mirror symptoms associated with chronic Lyme disease, with or without treatment.
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Renal System Dysfunction Caused By Lyme Disease
The renal system is a vital part of the overall functioning of the body. Without the ability to filter the blood, it can lead to the aforementioned symptoms and conditions.
The damage done to the renal system following a Lyme disease infection can:
- Cause the kidney filtration system to cease functioning, or function at a lower level.
- Aid in the formation of lesions on the kidneys.
- Cause the build-up of waste in the bloodstream.
- Lead to the leakage of proteins and red blood cells out of the system.
- Eventually cause kidney disease or kidney failure.
Can Lyme Disease Affect Kidney Function
Kidney disease can be a prevalent problem in patients who suffer from Lyme disease. In cases of chronic Lyme disease-induced kidney disease, the bacteria causes lesions on the kidneys, and can also cause glomerular disease.
Glomerular disease is a condition that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak out of the bloodstream and body and into the urinary tract. The condition can also cause the build-up of certain wastes because it damages the kidneys ability to rid the body properly of that waste.
Image by on The urinary system is designed to rid the body of waste, but what happens when its not doing its job?
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Treatment Of Lyme Disease
Although all stages of Lyme disease respond to antibiotics, early treatment is more likely to prevent complications.
Antibiotics such as doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime, taken by mouth for 2 to 3 weeks, are effective during the early stages of the disease. If early disease is localized, people may need treatment for only 10 days. If people cannot take any of these drugs, azithromycin is sometimes used but is less effective. Usually, doxycycline is not given to children under 8 years old or to pregnant or breastfeeding women.
Antibiotics can also help relieve many of the symptoms of Lyme disease.
For arthritis due to Lyme disease, antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime, or doxycycline are given by mouth for 28 days, or ceftriaxone is given intravenously for 28 days.
Antibiotics eradicate the bacteria and, in most people, relieve arthritis. However, arthritis sometimes lasts even after all the bacteria are gone because inflammation continues. Even after successful antibiotic treatment, some people still have other symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and mental problems.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , such as aspirin or ibuprofen, may relieve the pain of swollen joints. Fluid that collects in affected joints may be drained. Using crutches may help.
Metabolite Extraction And Lc
For LC-MS/MS analyses, a total of 10µL of standard, diluted pooled urine, or diluted pooled urine spiked with standard was applied to an Atlantis T3, 2.1×150mm, 3µm LC column and analyzed by an Agilent 1260 HPLC system coupled to an Agilent 6520 quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source . Metabolites were eluted with a 1 to 99% nonlinear gradient of acetonitrile in 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 250µL/min. The gradient was the same as that used for LC-MS analyses with the exception of returning to initial condition of 1% acetonitrile at 17min and holding at initial conditions for 23min. The LC-MS conditions were the same as those described for the TOF analyses, with the addition of a MS/MS scan rate of 1 spectra/s. Targeted ions were fragmented using fixed collision energies .
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Creatinine Assay Validates Lc
One putative metabolite identified in the negative-ion mode biosignature was creatinine. To evaluate the accuracy of our methods, this metabolite was targeted for structural identification. Creatinine was identified according to the metabolomics standards initiative definition using an authentic chemical standard,. Specifically, the MF with a monoisotopic mass of 113.0582 and RT of 1.90min and designated as creatinine, yielded a retention time and MS/MS spectrum that was identical to the creatinine standard . Creatinine concentrations were also determined in all urine samples by the alkaline picrate based colorimetric assay. The average creatinine concentrations were estimated at 125±79mg/dL for ELD samples, 164±101mg/dL for MONO samples and 84±44mg/dL for HC donors . The abundance trend observed for this metabolite among the three groups using creatinine concentration data was HC< ELD< MONO on average. The same trend in the creatinine abundance differences was observed when relative abundances were extracted from the LC-MS data .
Transmission Of Bb Via Ixodes Spp Vectors
The black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast, are the primary vectors of Bb in the USA. In endemic areas, the proportion of Ixodes spp. ticks infected with Bb can be remarkably high. One recent survey of the pathogen burden of 197 Ixodes scapularis ticks collected from New York and Connecticut where LD is endemic, revealed 111 ticks were infected with Bb and 37 were co-infected with more than one human pathogen . The high pathogen burden is consistent with previous tick surveys in the same region . In contrast, the percent of infected ticks in other regions of the USA is much lower. In recently published surveys across California, for example, fewer than 5% of Ixodes spp. ticks were infected . Ixodes ticks sometimes carry multiple strains of Bb that may impact the course of disease in people that are co-infected. One tick survey showed that 39% of Ixodes ticks in North America are infected with multiple genotypes of Bb .
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Recent Progress In Lyme Disease And Remaining Challenges
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States with an estimated 476,000 cases per year. While historically, the long-term impact of Lyme disease on patients has been controversial, mounting evidence supports the idea that a substantial number of patients experience persistent symptoms following treatment. The research community has largely lacked the necessary funding to properly advance the scientific and clinical understanding of the disease, or to develop and evaluate innovative approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Given the many outstanding questions raised into the diagnosis, clinical presentation and treatment of Lyme disease, and the underlying molecular mechanisms that trigger persistent disease, there is an urgent need for more support. This review article summarizes progress over the past 5 years in our understanding of Lyme and tick-borne diseases in the United States and highlights remaining challenges.
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Prevention Of Lyme Disease
People should take precautions to avoid being bitten by a tick. If people may have been exposed to ticks, they should check their whole body very carefully after each possible exposure and remove any ticks they find. Checking is effective because ticks must usually be attached for more than a day and a half to transmit Lyme disease.