What Is The Lyme Disease Vaccine
Although the syndrome now known as Lyme disease was first identified in human patients in 1975, Borrelia burgdorferi was not identified until 1981. The first canine Lyme vaccine was introduced in 1992 .
The Lyme vaccine for dogs is available at most veterinary clinics, especially in areas where Lyme disease poses a significant threat. Even in low-risk areas, many veterinarians carry this vaccine in order to protect dogs traveling to Lyme-endemic areas. If your veterinarian does not carry this vaccine, they may be able to obtain it for you or direct you to another clinic where you can receive it.
This vaccine does not require a specialist visit and can often be administered with your dogs other vaccinations at a routine wellness visit.
Zoonosis And Human Transmission
Lyme disease can infect both dogs and humans. Humans do not get Lyme directly from dogs, but rather from the same deer-ticks that can infect people. Limit the opportunities for your pet to bring ticks into your spaces by implementing tick control measures.
Make sure to check both of your bodies for ticks after being in areas with a high prevalence, as well as after being in tall grass, forest litter and brushing against other vegetation.
Otc Vs Prescription Flea And Tick Medicine
So, what constitutes good tick control? A product recommended by your vet, says Dr. Mengel, who also practices at the University of Pennsylvanias M. J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital.
Many flea and tick preventatives require a prescription, so vets can make sure your dog is getting the right medication and dosage, she adds.
While some over-the-counter dog flea and tick treatment products work well, tell your pets providers what you use so they can ensure it is an appropriate choice.
No matter what type of preventative flea and tick medicine for dogs you choose, whats very important is that it is used year-round when Lyme disease is a concern.
Deer ticks can remain active through the winter months, so it very important to keep your pet protected all year.
Also, dont be surprised if you still see a tick on your furry friend even with protection. Some products cant repel every single tick but still do kill the bugs before they have a chance to infect your dog.
If, however, you are finding significant numbers of live, attached ticks on your dog, talk to your veterinarian about more aggressive tick control methods.
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Can We Test Fluids Other Than Serum
Yes, CSF samples can be submitted from horses with neurological signs. The CSF sample needs to be submitted together with a serum sample from the same animal and taken at the same time. The relative increase of antibodies in CSF can indicate local production of antibodies in the CNS. Typically, one or two antibody values are increased more than 2-fold if B. burgdorferi contributes to the neurologic condition.
For other samples, contact the lab first .
Can I Catch Lyme Disease From My Dog
Dogs are not a direct source of infection for people. Lyme disease cant be transmitted from one pet to another, nor from pets to humans, except through tick bites. However, a carrier tick could come into your house on your dogs fur and get on you.
If your dog is diagnosed with Lyme disease, you and any other pets have probably been in the same outdoor environment and may also be at risk, so it is a good idea to consult with your physician and veterinarian to see whether you should test other pets or family members.
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Lyme Vaccine For Dogs
- USDA approved?Yes
Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme disease is found on multiple continents, including North America, Europe, and Asia. Within the U.S., Lyme disease was first observed in the Northeast and remains most common in that area however, it is now found across much of the country.
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infection diagnosed in dogs in the United States. In 2019, 5 percent of canine blood samples sent to a reference laboratory for Lyme disease testing were positive for infection .
Clinical signs of Lyme disease vary significantly. In many dogs, Lyme disease is completely asymptomatic. These dogs show no signs of illness. Approximately 10 percent of infected dogs, however, develop clinical signs of Lyme disease several months after being bit by an infected tick . Common clinical signs of Lyme disease in dogs include fever, lethargy, and limping. Dogs with mild signs can typically be treated successfully with antibiotics. A small percentage of infected dogs go on to develop a serious kidney disease, known as Lyme nephritis, which can be fatal despite treatment.
How Is Lyme Disease Treated
Because the Lyme spirochete is a bacterium, it can be treated with antibiotics. The antibiotic of choice is doxycycline, followed by amoxicillin, then azithromycin. Treatment lasts for 4 weeks. Occasionally, the initial infection will recur, or the pet will become re-infected by being bitten by another infected tick.
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Do Antibodies To B Burgdorferi Determine Active Infection
In untreated animals, antibodies to OspC and/or OspF are indicators of infection with B. burgdorferi. Many infected animals dont show clinical signs and maintain constant antibody levels to the pathogen. It is believed that many animals can control the persistent infection. However, increasing antibody values indicate re-activation of or re-infection with the pathogen.
In treated animals, antibody levels decrease slowly and are usually still detectable for several months if treatment was successful.
Lyme Vaccine For Dogs: Side Effects
Vaccinations trigger a response from the immune system. Therefore, mild side effects are normal and expected. Expected effects may include a mild fever, lethargy, soreness at the site of the vaccine, and decreased appetite. Just like when you get a flu shot, your dogs response to a vaccine may result in mild, short-lived signs of illness.
Occasionally, more serious reactions occur. Although severe vaccine reactions are rare, they require quick action. These reactions indicate an allergic reaction to a component of the vaccine.
Signs of an allergic reaction to Lyme vaccination include:
|Merial Animal Health||Recombitek® Lyme|
While there are slight differences in how these vaccines are produced and their mechanisms of action, all five are comparable in safety and efficacy.
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What Does The Lyme Multiplex Assay Measure
The Lyme Multiplex assay quantifies antibodies directed against specific proteins on the surface of B. burgdorferi at three different stages of the bacterial life cycle. This antibody profile can indicate whether an animal has been recently infected or is chronically infected with B. burgdorferi. It can also be used to monitor protective antibodies after vaccination.
The Lyme Vaccination For Dogs Isnt Foolproof
The shot isnt 100 percent effective, says Dr. Mengel.
But, Dr. Mengel adds, anecdotally, many practices report seeing lower numbers of dogs testing positive for exposure to the bacteria that causes Lyme since using the vaccine in practice over several years.
The Lyme vaccine cannot replace good tick control, because it is not completely effective at preventing Lyme disease, and it does nothing to protect against the many other tick-borne diseases, such as ehrlichiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, says Dr. Brevitz.
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Can My Animal Get Infected Despite Being Vaccinated
Yes. Some animals have been infected despite vaccination. The most common reasons are low or short-lasting vaccine antibodies in the individual animal. It is advisable to monitor the vaccine response annually to ensure the animal develops sufficient antibodies in response to vaccination. Vaccine antibodies can be quantified with the Lyme Multiplex assay as early as two weeks following vaccination or anytime afterwards.
If My Animal Is Positive On The Assay Should He/she Be Treated For Lyme Disease
If your animal is displaying clinical signs of Lyme disease and is positive on the Lyme Multiplex assay, it is advisable to discuss treatment options with your veterinarian. If your animal appears healthy, discuss the risks and benefits of treatment and develop a monitoring plan with your veterinarian.
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Disease Of Low Clinical Significance
The vast majority of dogs appear to exhibit a kind of natural immunity to Lyme borreliosis roughly 95% of dogs remain asymptomatic following exposure to a tick infected with B. burgdorferi . Although there are reports of potentially fatal cardiac and renal sequelae associated with B. burgdorferi in the literature , these syndromes appear to be exceedingly rare. Furthermore, these purported syndromes are challenging to conclusively link with Lyme borreliosis for that same reason , as well as a lack of disease model, with no gold standard test to differentiate between clinical and incidental infections . It seems fair to say, then, that Lyme borreliosis meets the first criterion of AAHA of being a disease of low clinical significance.
How Likely Is It That Your Dog Will Get Lyme Disease
The Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria found in ticks causes flu-like symptoms. Dr Raus research shows that about a third of ticks carry this bacteria species meaning that if a tick bites your dog, its only 33% likely to carry the B burgdorferi bacteria.
If the bite is from an infected tick, then your dog may develop flu-like symptoms. He may also develop a rash at the site of infection.
This is the first stage of Lyme disease.
Dr Rau and other researchers estimate that only 10% to 20% of tick bites will lead to Stage 1 Lyme Disease. But if left untreated, 30% of Stage 1 cases will lead to Stage 2. This is where bacteria can infect the skin, joints, kidneys and sometimes the heart.
So that means your dog has about a 1% to 2% chance of Stage 2 Lyme Disease the kind of Lyme disease that can make him very sick.
Stage 3 Lyme is the chronic stage. This stage can begin months or even years after infection.
The most common symptoms are joint and muscle pain. Only 1% of stage 2 cases of Lyme progress to Stage 3. This mirrors research done in dogs.
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How Much Does Lyme Disease Treatment Cost
An estimated 240,000 to 440,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year, with the an average of $3,000 spent annually per patient on treatment, according to the study, published online in PLOS ONE. Treating Lyme disease and its lingering symptoms can cost healthcare system up to $1.3 billion annually.
Lyme Disease In Dogs: What Your Vet Isnt Telling You
Lyme disease the mere thought of it is terrifying to pet owners everywhere. Rashes, lameness, swollen joints these are all symptoms that you never want your dog to experience.
The good news is, the situation isnt as scary as you may have thought.
Before we look at why, lets take a look at how dogs get Lyme disease in the first place.
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For Animals That Have Not Been Vaccinated Can Osp A Values Be Positive How Should This Be Interpreted
Antibodies to OspA have previously been interpreted as markers for vaccination. Non-vaccinated animals usually have low values for antibodies to OspA, while vaccinated animals develop these antibodies. OspA antibodies have been shown to protect from infection with B. burgdorferi.
However, there is accumulating evidence that antibodies to OspA can occur without vaccination. First, residual OspA is present on the bacterial surface at the time of transmission to an animal. This causes a low and transient OspA antibody response early after infection. Second, antibodies to OspA have also been associated with treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis and with development of autoimmunity in human patients. Similarly, OspA antibodies in non-vaccinated dogs or horses can be considered as markers of chronicity and disease severity.
Lyme Disease From Tick Larvae
Ticks arent born with Lyme Disease. They too get it from another living organism.
In the spring, ticks lay their eggs. By late summer the larvae hatch and are ready to feed. They wait on the ground for a small mammal or bird to arrive and brush up against it.
The larva will attach itself to the small animal and begin feeding over the next few days. If this animal has Lyme disease, the larva will carry the bacterium in its stomach. Mice and ground-feeding birds often serve as spirochete hosts. When the tick attaches to its next host, the bacterium transfers into the blood of the new host.
Larvae are very hard to detect as they are no larger than a period in a print magazine.
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How Long After Treatment Should The Horse/dog Be Re
Antibodies decrease slowly but gradually after the pathogen is cleared from the hosts circulation. Re-testing should not be performed too early. For horses/dogs with positive values for antibodies to OspF but negative values for antibodies to OspC , retesting should be done 3 months after the treatment was started. For horses with a positive OspC antibody value retesting can be done 6-8 weeks after the treatment started. At the time of retesting, a decrease of antibody levels can be expected in successfully treated animals. Serum antibodies may not have completely disappeared at this time. However, they should have dropped by about 40% of the original positive value.
Serum Samples From Experimentally Vaccinated Dogs
The experimental vaccinations were done in collaboration with Covance Research Products with a standard kennel facility located in Kalamazoo, Mich. A total of 10 purebred specific-pathogen-free beagle dogs were obtained from the Covance Research Products stock colony. All animals received the usual vaccines and medication per Covance Research Products standard operating procedure. Noncertified canine diet number 5L03 and tap water from a well supply were provided ad libitum. One dog served as a control, and each of the remaining nine dogs was assigned to one of three vaccine groups. Each vaccine group comprised three dogs, and all dogs in each group received one of the following vaccines: RECOMBITEK Lyme , LymeVax , and Galaxy Lyme . Local veterinarians obtained the vaccines from veterinary distributors. Each animal received a total of 0.5 to 1.0 ml of vaccine at each administration. Each dose was divided into two intramuscular or subcutaneous injections and administered in two different injection sites. Vaccine was administered at weeks 0, 2, 33, 36, and 39. Test bleeds were obtained weekly between weeks 3 and 18 and weeks 33 and 43. Bleeds also were obtained immediately before the administration of the vaccine at weeks 0, 33, 36, and 39. Whole blood was collected via a jugular vein into glass Vacutainer tubes containing no anticoagulant. Serum was obtained from these samples and stored frozen at â20 to â80Â°C.
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Immunoassays For Antibody To The C6 Peptide
Each of 203 B. burgdorferi antibody-negative samples tested on SNAP 3Dx was negative. The specificity of the SNAP 3Dx test in this population was 100% .
The microtiter plate format ELISA was performed using C6-MAP-coated microtiter plates and a rabbit anti-canine IgG-HRP conjugate . The ELISA was optimized by testing dilutions of samples known to be positive and negative on microtiter plates coated with different levels of the C6-MAP in a checkerboard fashion with different concentrations of the anti-canine IgG-HRP conjugate. Optimized microtiter plates were coated with 1 Î¼g of the C6-MAP per ml in 0.2 M phosphate buffer for 12 to 16 h at 3Â°C. Plates were washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline solution containing 0.05% Tween 20 , incubated with fish gelatin and sucrose solutions, and dried. Test samples were diluted 1:50 in PBS-T containing BSA, fish gelatin, and calf serum. A volume of 100 Î¼l was added to individual microtiter wells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. The contents of the microtiter wells were aspirated, washed three times with PBS-T, and incubated with rabbit anti-canine IgG-HRP conjugate diluted 1:3,000 in a conjugate diluent containing nonspecific proteins and detergent.
This study was conducted in accordance with applicable Covance Research Products, Inc., standard operating procedures. All procedures are in compliance with U.S. Animal Welfare Act regulations .
Does Your Dog Need A Lyme Vaccine
Reviewed for accuracy on May 8, 2019 by Dr. Jennifer Coates, DVM
There are two kinds of dog vaccinescore vaccinations and noncore.
Noncore, or lifestyle vaccines, may be recommended by a veterinarian based on your dogs individual lifestyle or health status.
One of these so-called noncore vaccinations is the Lyme vaccine for dogs.
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How Is Lyme Disease Diagnosed
Dogs with lameness, swollen joints, and fever are suspected of having Lyme disease. However, other diseases may also cause these symptoms. There are a few blood tests that may be used for confirmation. The first is an antibody test, that your veterinarian can perform in the clinic setting using a special test kit. This test detects the presence of antibodies created by exposure to the organism. A test can be falsely negative if the dog is infected, but has not yet formed antibodies, or if it never forms enough antibodies to cause a positive reaction. It is recommended to test no earlier than 4 weeks after a tick bite. Some dogs that have been infected for long periods of time may no longer have enough antibodies present to be detected by the test. Therefore, a positive test is meaningful, but a negative is not. A follow up test called a QC6 test can be done to assess the numerical antibody level as confirmation.
Other tests including PCR , ELISA , joint fluid analysis, and culture can also be done with varying degrees of sensitivity, but are done less commonly. General blood and urine tests are also often done to assess kidney function and look for loss of protein in the urine. See handout Testing for Lyme Disease in Dogs for further information.