How Often Is Lyme Disease Vaccine Needed
Initially, the vaccine is given as a series of two boosters . Depending on the vaccineâs manufacturer, this series of vaccines can be started around eight to nine weeks of age.
Some veterinarians recommend boostering this series six months later, followed by another booster in six months, then once yearly after that. Other veterinarians recommend vaccinating yearly after the initial two booster series. When and how often to booster will likely be based on the concern for Lyme disease in your area and your petâs risk for tick bites.
Serum Samples From Experimentally Vaccinated Dogs
The experimental vaccinations were done in collaboration with Covance Research Products with a standard kennel facility located in Kalamazoo, Mich. A total of 10 purebred specific-pathogen-free beagle dogs were obtained from the Covance Research Products stock colony. All animals received the usual vaccines and medication per Covance Research Products standard operating procedure. Noncertified canine diet number 5L03 and tap water from a well supply were provided ad libitum. One dog served as a control, and each of the remaining nine dogs was assigned to one of three vaccine groups. Each vaccine group comprised three dogs, and all dogs in each group received one of the following vaccines: RECOMBITEK Lyme , LymeVax , and Galaxy Lyme . Local veterinarians obtained the vaccines from veterinary distributors. Each animal received a total of 0.5 to 1.0 ml of vaccine at each administration. Each dose was divided into two intramuscular or subcutaneous injections and administered in two different injection sites. Vaccine was administered at weeks 0, 2, 33, 36, and 39. Test bleeds were obtained weekly between weeks 3 and 18 and weeks 33 and 43. Bleeds also were obtained immediately before the administration of the vaccine at weeks 0, 33, 36, and 39. Whole blood was collected via a jugular vein into glass Vacutainer tubes containing no anticoagulant. Serum was obtained from these samples and stored frozen at â20 to â80Â°C.
Risk Communication And Policy Implications
Risk communication represents the process of informing individual and collective decision-making by describing benefits as well as risks. As illustrated by the case of Lyme vaccine, the issues involved often become very complex and require an in-depth understanding to accurately access risk. However, the public attention span is typically short. The media often serve as the only channel through which the general public obtains its health information.
In the aftermath of the LYMErix market withdrawal, we must look for lessons learned. The vaccine developers believed they developed a safe and effective vaccine to prevent the most common tick-borne infection in the United States. Even available post-market surveillance failed to demonstrate convincing harm from the LYMErix vaccine. After review of available data, the FDA found insufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between the reported adverse effects and the vaccine and continued to permit use of the vaccine. However, the public’s perception of potential risks, heavily influenced by the negative press coverage and limited awareness of the benefits of the vaccine, decreased consumer demand for the vaccine.
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Duramune Lyme + Leptovax 4 Caution
DO NOT USE AS DILUENT FOR LIVE VACCINES. Store in the dark at 2° to 8°C . AVOID FREEZING. SHAKE WELL. Do not mix with other products, except as specified on the label. This product has not been tested in pregnant animals. In case of anaphylactoid reaction, administer epinephrine. Inactivate all unused contents before disposal. In case of human exposure, contact a physician.
Gentamicin and thimerosal added as preservatives.
Should Dogs Be Vaccinated For Canine Influenza
Routine use of canine influenza vaccines in all dogs is currently not recommended by the task force. Risk should be determined by current circulation of canine influenza virus and etiologic diagnosis using PCR in canine infectious upper respiratory disease cases.
Risk factors in individual dogs include:
Track outbreaks of canine influenza in the United States here
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The Gathering Storm: The Fda Meets
With lawsuits pending and questions from the public and the media, and facing an increasingly complex and explosive situation, the FDA reconvened its advisory panel on 31 January 2001 to discuss the future of the Lyme vaccine. The participants included the FDA scientific advisors, the LYMErix manufacturer, independent experts, practising physicians, the vaccine victims and their lawyers.
This panel, described by one participant as raucous and riotous , provided a forum for all of the stakeholders . In support of the vaccine, the FDA summarized the VAERS data and concluded that the evidence did not support a causative association. The vaccine manufacturer, now GlaxoSmithKline following a corporate merger, assured the assembled parties that the LYMErix vaccine did not cause harm to its recipients. They reviewed the status of their phase IV post-marketing surveillance. Practising physicians spoke of vaccine efficacy by describing the dramatic reduction in Lyme disease cases in their own practices.
Others raised concerns about the vaccine’s safety. Scientists argued a potential role for genetic susceptibility and OspA-related autoimmunity in vaccine complications. Poignant presentations by several vaccine victims described in detail their suffering. The prosecuting lawyers for the largest class action suit claimed that manufacturers suppressed reports of adverse events from the licensing trial and provided inadequate warnings to genetically susceptible individuals.
How Is Lyme Disease Diagnosed
Dogs with lameness, swollen joints, and fever are suspected of having Lyme disease. However, other diseases may also cause these symptoms. There are a few blood tests that may be used for confirmation. The first is an antibody test, that your veterinarian can perform in the clinic setting using a special test kit. This test detects the presence of antibodies created by exposure to the organism. A test can be falsely negative if the dog is infected, but has not yet formed antibodies, or if it never forms enough antibodies to cause a positive reaction. It is recommended to test no earlier than 4 weeks after a tick bite. Some dogs that have been infected for long periods of time may no longer have enough antibodies present to be detected by the test. Therefore, a positive test is meaningful, but a negative is not. A follow up test called a QC6 test can be done to assess the numerical antibody level as confirmation.
Other tests including PCR , ELISA , joint fluid analysis, and culture can also be done with varying degrees of sensitivity, but are done less commonly. General blood and urine tests are also often done to assess kidney function and look for loss of protein in the urine. See handout Testing for Lyme Disease in Dogs for further information.
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Duramune Lyme + Max 5/4l
Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2-Parainfluenza-Parvovirus Vaccine, Modified Live Virus, Borrelia Burgdorferi Bacterin-Leptospira Canicola-Grippotyphosa-Icterohaemorrhagiae-Pomona Bacterial Extract
For use in animals only
This product has been shown to be effective for vaccination of healthy dogs 9 weeks of age or older against canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parainfluenza, canine parvovirus , Leptospira canicola, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona and Borrelia burgdorferi. The duration of immunity against Borrelia burgdorferi is at least 12 months. The duration for the remaining antigens in this product has not been determined. For more information regarding efficacy and safety data, go to productdata.aphis.usda.gov.
This product contains a CPV 2b strain which has been demonstrated effective against disease caused by CPV 2c in puppies with CPV maternal antibody.
Cost Of The Lyme Disease Vaccine For Dogs
The Lyme vaccine typically costs $20-$40, depending on your location. Remember that your dog will need two vaccines the first year, then one vaccine yearly.
In order to administer the vaccine, your veterinarian will also likely need to perform a physical exam. Exam charges vary by geographic location, but typically range from $40-$80. In many cases, however, the Lyme vaccine is administered at a routine wellness visit, eliminating the need for a separate exam fee.
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Outer Surface Proteins And Ld Vaccine Development
The Borreliella genome encodes a vast repertoire of surface-exposed proteins . Many are differentially expressed in response to environmental variables . To date, only two surface proteins have been successfully developed as subunit vaccine antigens in human or veterinary LD vaccines: outer surface protein A and a laboratory designed outer surface protein C -based recombinant chimeric epitope protein.
Should You Get The Lyme Vaccine For Your Dog
I cant tell you what to do although there are a lot of folks who try to
If you visit the Pets & Parasites website, theyll do their best to scare you about the prospects of your dog getting Lyme disease.
Yet, how can Lyme disease be that scary when most dogs will never get sick? Even when they test positive for Lyme.
Why all the fuss about Lyme if it doesnt really affect dogs? Companion Animal Parasite Council publishes The Pets & Parasites website. And this council is sponsored by companies who make tick products they want you to buy.
You might think Im biased when it comes to vaccines and that would be true but Im nowhere near as biased as the huge corporations that make billions of dollars off dogs and cats each year! And dont think theyll share my little secret that 95% of dogs with Lyme disease will NEVER develop any symptoms theres no money in that message.
But they will try to scare you and your vet every year, so youll run out and get their spot ons and vaccines.
But now I hope you know better than to get caught up in the propaganda.
So, will you vaccinate your dog for Lyme this year?
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Side Effects Of Lyme Disease Vaccine
No major side effects exist with the Lyme disease vaccine in healthy dogs. As with any vaccines, some dogs may have sensitivity after the vaccine, or they can develop some form of a vaccine reaction. Symptoms of a more serious vaccine reaction can include:
Pain & /or swelling at the injection site
Hives or red patches on the stomach
Swelling of the face
Dogs who are infected with Lyme disease, even if not showing symptoms, are more prone to develop severe reaction symptoms. This may be due to their immune systemâs response to dealing with both the disease and the vaccine simultaneously. If any unusual symptoms are noted after a Lyme disease vaccine, call your veterinarian for advice.
Your Veterinarian Will Decide If The Lyme Vaccine Is Right For Your Dog
Your veterinarian is your best resource for deciding if your dog is a good candidate for the Lyme vaccination for dogs. So, before you sign your pup up for this yearly shot, talk with your vet about your pets lifestyle and risk level for Lyme disease.
Pets whove been treated for Lyme disease in dogs should probably get the vaccine, but not if the disease caused kidney damage, says Dr. Brevitz. The vet will check the dogs urine to see if there are excessive amounts of protein before giving the vaccine.
If there are abnormal amounts that are thought to be caused by Lyme disease, your pup should skip the vaccine to theoretically prevent more kidney damage from occurring.
Most dogs wont have side effects with this shot, and if they do, they are mild ones, like feeling tired or sore at the site of the injection, says Dr. Mengel. But, if your dog has a history of severe reactions, bring it up with your vet.
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Does My Dog Need A Lyme Disease Vaccine
Unfortunately, the answer isnât straight forward. The American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine states that Lyme disease vaccines are not considered part of the core group of vaccines necessary for all dogs. Lyme disease vaccine is primarily recommended for dogs that live or frequently visit areas known for Lyme disease as well as for those living in areas with high potential for tick exposure.
Vaccinating for Lyme disease in sick dogs or those who have urinary protein issues is not recommended. Veterinarians and researchers also debate whether vaccinating a dog that already has Lyme disease is necessary. Some say it will help prevent the dog from becoming infected again, while others worry that the vaccine could cause a serious reaction, making the dog even sicker.
Dogs That Stay Mostly Indoors Can Get Ticks And Lyme Disease
Dont brush off flea and tick prevention just because your dog sticks around the house, either. Many of us have diagnosed clinical infection of Lyme disease in dogs that only go outside to potty and spend the rest of the time indoors. Ticks can hitch a ride into the house on humans and other pets, says Dr. Mengel.
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Efficacy Of The Vaccine
These vaccines are extremely safe and, in conjunction with tick removal and control, prevent B burgdorferi infection and clinical Lyme disease, including Lyme nephritis.
The anecdotal evidence for this fact is overwhelming, but it has also been shown prospectively in multiple controlled studies in experimental infection and in the field. Following are just a few of many examples of such evidence in the field.
- Levy showed excellent field efficacy of canine Lyme disease vaccination in 2003.10
- In 2010, Hebert and Eschner proved the efficacy of the Lyme disease prevention protocol, including vaccination in a large Rhode Island practice.11
- In a population of guide dogs in New York, implementation of strict tick control and mandatory Lyme disease vaccination regimen reduced the number of Lyme nephritis cases from approximately 10/year to less than 1/year over 7 years.12
Is There A Vaccine That Will Protect My Dog From Lyme Disease
A safe and generally effective vaccine is available for protecting dogs against Lyme disease. This vaccine is initially given twice, at two- to four-week intervals.
“Annual revaccination is necessary to maintain immunity.”
Annual revaccination is necessary to maintain immunity. Vaccination against Lyme disease will be determined by your pet’s lifestyle and individual risk assessment. Be sure to discuss any questions you may have regarding the type and frequency of vaccination with your veterinarian.
|Contributors: Ryan Llera, BSc, DVM Ernest Ward, DVM|
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Synthesis Of The C6 Peptide
The amino acid sequence of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato synthetic C6 peptide is Met-Lys-Lys-Asp-Asp-Gln-Ile-Ala-Ala-Ala-Met-Val-Leu-Arg-Gly-Met-Ala-Lys-Asp-Gly-Gln-Phe-Ala-Leu-Lys. These are the same 25 amino acids in the published sequence of IR6 found within the variable surface antigen of B. burgdorferi sensu lato . An amino-terminal Cys residue was added to the peptide to facilitate chemical coupling. The linear peptide raw material was synthesized at IDEXX on a Perkins-Elmer model 433A peptide synthesizer by using standard 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chemistry methods . The amino terminus of the peptide was esterified with acetic anhydride. The peptide was deprotected and cleaved from the resin in trifluoroacetic acid with scavengers by using standard methods for 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chemistry. The cleaved peptide product was precipitated, washed, lyophilized, and stored at 2 to 7Â°C or frozen for long-term storage in sealed bags with desiccant. The identity of the peptide was verified by mass spectral analysis. The C6 multiple antigenic peptide was synthesized with a four-branch lysine core . The synthesis, cleavage, processing, and storage of C6-MAP were identical to those of the linear peptide.
What Is Cdc Doing
CDC is currently conducting research to understand what concerns healthcare providers and the public may have about any potential Lyme disease vaccines. Once a Lyme disease vaccine is approved as safe and effective by the Food and Drug Administration , CDC will work with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices to develop recommendations about where in the U.S. the public might benefit from a Lyme disease vaccine. CDC will communicate these recommendations to increase awareness of a vaccine among the public and clinicians to prevent Lyme disease in the United States.
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Duramune Lyme + Leptovax 4
Borrelia Burgdorferi Bacterin-Leptospira Canicola-Grippotyphosa-Icterohaemorrhagiae-Pomona Bacterial Extract
For use in dogs only
For use in animals only
This product has been shown to be effective for the vaccination of healthy dogs 9 weeks of age or older against Borrelia burgdorferi, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae and Leptospira pomona. The duration of immunity against Borrelia burgdorferi is at least 12 months. The duration for the remaining antigens in this product has not been determined. For more information regarding efficacy and safety data, go to productdata.aphis.usda.gov.
Dosage and route of administration: Administer one 1 mL dose subcutaneously. The presence of maternal antibody is known to interfere with the development of active immunity in dogs and additional boosters will be required in most young animals. All dogs should initially receive one dose of this product and a second dose 2 to 3 weeks later. Historically, annual revaccination with a single dose has been recommended for this product. The need for this booster has not been established.
For advice on revaccination frequency and annual booster vaccinations, consultation with a veterinarian is recommended.
How Effective Is The Lyme Disease Vaccine For Dogs
The Lyme vaccine for dogs isn’t 100 percent effective. However, Bailey notes that as a general rule, a dog that contracts the disease after being vaccinated will likely have less severe symptoms.
Breakthrough infections are only one reason to keep your dog monthly flea and tick preventiveseven if your dog has been vaccinated against Lyme disease. “Lyme Disease is one of the few tick-borne diseases that we have a vaccine for,” Bailey explains. “There are many others we don’t yet have a vaccine for, such as ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and anaplasmosis, that can be fatal. Moreover, these preventives also cover fleas, which are not only miserably uncomfortable for our pets, but can lead to skin problems and carry diseases, as well.”
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