Monday, November 28, 2022

Lyme Disease Treatment In Children

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Lyme Disease Childrens Treatment Dosages

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There are 4 different antibiotics recommended in the NICE Guideline for Lyme disease to treat children aged 12 and under for Lyme disease.

  • For children aged 9 to 12 years, the treatment is usually doxycycline or amoxycillin.
  • For children below 9 years of age, the treatment is usually amoxycillin or azithromycin.
  • Ceftriaxone is occasionally given via a drip in hospital for very severe cases of Lyme disease.

Children who are older than 12 should be given the same treatments and doses as adults.

The calculations below will give quantities which are then rounded off to the nearest number available as tablets or on syrup measuring syringes. This means very small variations between the dosage calculated from a childs weight, and the dosage prescribed, are to be expected.

Take your childs weight in kilogrammes.

Multiply it by 30.

This is the amount of Amoxycillin in milligrammes that your child should be given THREE TIMES per day, for 21 days.

Example

David weighs 25kg.

25 x 30 = 750

David should be given 750mg of Amoxycillin THREE TIMES per day.

Maximum weight

Special advice

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

Lyme disease has three stages. Not everyone experiences all symptoms. Children treated with antibiotics in the early stage almost never develop late stages of the disease.

Early stage:

  • In about 70 per cent of children with early Lyme disease: A circular or oval expanding pink or red rash called erythema migrans at the site of a recent tick bite. The rash can be more than 5 cm across, and almost always develops from 3 to 30 days after a tick bite. Unlike skin infections, it is usually painless.
  • Fever, general discomfort, headache, mild neck stiffness, muscle and/or joint pain may be present with or without the rash.
  • Blood tests for Lyme disease should not be done in the early stages, because they are usually negative. If someone has been in area with known Lyme disease and develops a rash that is thought to possibly be erythema migrans, they should be treated with antibiotics that work for Lyme disease. A person who has no rash but has other possible signs or symptoms of Lyme disease after a tick bite should see a doctor.

Second stage, when the bacteria spread in the body:

  • Multiple erythema migrans rashes may appear several weeks after the tick bite.
  • Facial paralysis may appear as weakness in the muscles of one side of the face , often noticed as an uneven smile.
  • Meningitis may appear with fever, headache, stiff or sore neck.
  • Heart disease is rare, especially in children.

Late stage:

Post-Lyme disease persistent symptoms:

How Is Lyme Disease Treated In A Child

Lyme disease is usually treated with antibiotic medicine. Early stage Lyme disease is more easily cured with antibiotics than late-stage disease. Your childs healthcare provider will discuss the best treatment plan with you based on:

  • Your childs symptoms and test results
  • If your child had a recent tick bite
  • If the tick tests positive for bacteria that cause Lyme
  • If your child lives in an area where the ticks are known to be infected

Talk with your childs healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all medicines.

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What Is Neurologic Lyme Disease

Neurologic symptoms of Lyme disease occur when the Lyme disease bacteria affect the peripheral or central nervous systems.

  • Cranial nerve involvement: When the cranial nerves are affected, facial palsy can occur on one or both sides of the face.
  • Peripheral nerve involvement: When the peripheral nerves are affected, patients can develop radiculoneuropathy which can cause numbness, tingling, shooting pain, or weakness in the arms or legs.
  • Central nervous system involvement: When the central nervous system is affected, Lyme meningitis can cause fever, headache, sensitivity to light, and stiff neck.

Out of every 100 patients whose cases are reported to CDC, 9 have facial palsy, 4 have radiculopathy, and 3 have meningitis or encephalitis. Because of reporting practices, this statistic may overestimate how often these manifestations are seen by clinicians.

Powerful Home Remedies For Lyme Disease In Children

About Children

Grapefruit seed extract, reishi mushroom, vitamin D foods, turmeric, garlic, cats claw and astragalus are 7 powerful home remedies for lyme disease in children.

There are many tick-borne diseases, and one such disease is the Lyme disease. Unfortunately, adults are not the only victim for this. Children too fall prey to Lyme disease if adequate care is not taken. Lyme disease is a type of bacterial infection that is transmitted by an infected black-legged tick. The main symptoms associated with this disease is skin rashes, fatigue, headache, and fever. If left untreated, it can affect the heart, nervous system, and the brain. The good news is that there are several natural home remedies that can cure Lyme disease effectively. Read on to know more.

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How Can Ld Be Prevented

Physicians should be aware of the epidemiology of tick-borne LD in their area, and recommend some basic precautions for families living, hiking or camping in rural or wooded areas where they may be exposed to ticks.

  • Where play spaces adjoin wooded areas, landscaping can reduce contact with ticks. A pictogram from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is available at: www.cdc.gov/lyme/prev/in_the_yard.html
  • Apply 20% to 30% DEET or icaridin repellents. Repellents can be applied to clothing as well as to exposed skin. Always read and follow label directions.
  • Do a full body check every day for ticks. Promptly remove ticks found on yourself, children and pets. Shower or bathe within two hours of being outdoors to wash off unattached ticks.

For more information on how to prevent tick bites, refer to a recent practice point from the Canadian Paediatric Society at: www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/preventing-mosquito-and-tick-bites.

How To Avoid Tick Bites

To reduce the chance of being bitten:

  • cover your skin while walking outdoors and tuck your trousers into your socks
  • use insect repellent on your clothes and skin products containing DEET are best
  • stay on clear paths whenever possible
  • wear light-coloured clothing so ticks are easier to see and brush off

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Children With Lyme Disease

Children with Lyme disease have special issues. Since they cant always explain what feels wrong, they may just come across as cranky and irritable. They suffer when their bodies hurt, when their illness disrupts their sleep at night, when they struggle in school, when they dont even feel like playing. They may feel confused, lost and betrayed by parents and teachers who fail to recognize that they are sick and need help.

Mothers and fathers may not understand what the childs normal baseline is. Is this the terrible twos or the nine-year-old change or is something really wrong?

Because the symptoms of Lyme disease can be non-specific, vague and changeable, adults may not even realize these children are ill. They may suspect them of making things up to gain attention or to avoid school. Children with Lyme often have trouble in the classroom, because the disease can contribute to learning disabilities and behavioral problems.

Children are especially vulnerable to tick-borne diseases because they are physically low to the ground, where the ticks are. They play in leaves, roll on grass, cuddle with pets and otherwise increase their exposure to ticks.

LymeDisease.org is the publisher of The Lyme Times, a quarterly online magazine available to members. We have two issues that have a wealth of information about children and Lyme disease. Please click on the buttons below to view the Table of Contents of each issue.

What Should I Do If I Find A Tick On My Child

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Don’t panic. First Lyme disease is spread by the black-legged tick, not by the larger and more-common dog tick. The risk of developing Lyme disease after a black-legged tick bite is low, especially if the tick has been attached for a short time.

If you find a tick on your child, remove it using a fine-tipped pair of tweezers. Grasp the body of the tick and pull in an upward motion until the tick comes out. Do not squeeze or twist the ticks body. Take note of the ticks size and color, and how long you think it has been attached to your child.

If your child has been bitten by a black-legged tick that has been attached for more than 24 hours and you are in a Lyme disease endemic area, consult with your pediatrician. In some cases, your child may be prescribed antibiotics to prevent Lyme disease from developing.

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Treatment Of Lyme Disease

Early diagnosis and proper antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease is important and can help prevent late Lyme disease. The following treatment regimens reflect CDCs interpretation of the most current data for four important manifestations of Lyme disease. These regimens are consistent with guidanceexternal icon published by the by the Infectious Disease Society of America, American Academy of Neurology, and American College of Rheumatology.

Some patients report persistent symptoms of pain, fatigue, or difficulty thinking even after treatment for Lyme disease. The state of the science relating to persistent symptoms associated with Lyme disease is limited, emerging, and unsettled.

Additional researchexternal icon is needed to better understand how to treat, manage, and support people with persistent symptoms associated with Lyme disease. In light of these research gaps, recommendations for treatment of persistent symptoms in people previously treated for Lyme disease are not provided here.

If you are interested in information on chronic Lyme diseaseexternal icon, see NIHs website.

Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

Duration Of Lyme Disease Treatment

Duration of treatment is measured by clinical response. The duration of treatment is usually shorter, such as 5-7 days in a child under seven as opposed to a longer-term treatment .

The criteria used for the cessation of antibiotic therapy is if a child can: 1) be Lyme symptom-free for two months 2) not have a Lyme-induced flare-up as a result of another infection, fatigue, emotional trauma or injury 3) can show a Western blot that does not reflect active infection and 4) is PCR negative. If a particular medicine is working and is well tolerated, continue it until the above criteria are met.

  • It does not take long, certainly less than 24-48 hours, for a small Ixodes scapularis tick or nymph to attach, feed and disseminate organisms in a young child with soft, thin, very vascular skin.
  • Children with Ixodes scapularis tick attachments in the head/neck area, under the arms or under the collar bones and in the belly button seem to result in Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes disseminating rapidly to the brain causing early central nervous system symptoms. This may occur because spirochetes are carried by arteries going to the brain via the circle of Willis.
  • Persisting Lyme symptoms indicate a persisting Borrelia burgdorferi infection in need of continuous antibiotic therapy until all symptoms have resolved.
  • Withholding necessary antibiotic therapy can result in children with Lyme disease having unnecessary permanently injured lives.
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    Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

    Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease can vary from person to person after being bitten by a tick.

    Lyme disease occurs in stages. The signs and symptoms of each stage can overlap. In some people, Lyme disease may present in a later stage without a history of prior signs or symptoms.

    The most commonly reported sign of Lyme disease is an expanding skin rash that typically begins at the site of the tick bite. This rash is called erythema migrans. It slowly grows to more than 5 cm in diameter over several days, and can sometimes:

    • be circular or oval-shaped
    • look like a target or bull’s eye
    • go unnoticed, especially if it’s on:
    • dark skin
    • a part of the body that’s difficult to see

    Some people may not develop a rash.

    Other early signs and symptoms include:

    • fever

    If left untreated, the infection could spread to the joints, heart and nervous system.

    Images of erythema migrans rash

    Image 1Footnote a: A rash that looks like a bull’s eye at the site of a tick bite.

    Image 2Footnote a: An oval-shaped red rash.

    Image 3Footnote a: A red rash that has expanded across the width of a limb.

    Image 4Footnote a: A red rash and blisters on a forearm.

    Image 5Footnote b: A rash on a shoulder.

    Image 6Footnote c: A rash on the back of a knee.

    Footnote a

    Later symptoms of Lyme disease can appear days to months after an infected tick bite, and may include:

    • more rashes
    • migratory pain that spreads in the:
    • joints
  • thinking and reasoning symptoms, such as:
  • memory loss
  • How To Remove A Tick

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    • Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick close to the skin surface .
    • Pull upward with steady, even pressure . Try not to twist or jerk, which can cause the mouthpart of the tick to break off and remain in the skin. If this happens and you are unable to remove the mouthpart easily with clean tweezers, leave it alone and let the skin heal.
    • Clean the bite area and your hands with rubbing alcohol, an iodine scrub, or soap and water.

    The Public Health Agency of Canada advises people to:

    • Keep any ticks they remove themselves in a resealable plastic bag or pill vial and note the location and date of the bite.
    • Watch for symptoms and see a health care professional immediately should symptoms appear.
    • Take the tick with them to their medical appointment, to verify species and test as needed.

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    How Do I Remove A Tick From My Child

    If you find a tick attached to your child, remove it as soon as possible. Ticks can stay attached and feed for five or more days. Removing a tick within 24 to 36 hours of it starting to feed is likely to prevent Lyme disease.

    • Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the ticks mouth-part area close to the skin surface .
    • Pull upward with steady, even pressure .
    • Dont twist or jerk the tick this can cause the mouth-parts to break off and stay in the skin. If this happens, remove the mouth-parts with tweezers. If you cant, leave it alone and let the skin heal.
    • When possible, disinfect the bite area after removal .

    Figure A and B – Reproduced with permission from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

    How Is Lyme Disease Diagnosed In A Child

    The healthcare provider will ask about your childs symptoms and health history. He or she will ask about recent tick bites. He or she will give your child a physical exam.

    Lyme is usually not hard to diagnose. OBut other conditions may cause similar symptoms. The main symptom is often a rash, but more than 1 in 5 people infected with Lyme dont have the rash. In the earliest stage, diagnosis is usually based on symptoms and a history of a tick bite. In later stages, blood testing is very important to make a diagnosis of Lyme disease.

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    Post Lyme Disease Persistent Symptoms

    Non-specific post Lyme disease persistent symptoms can occur after adequate treatment of the initial infection. This does not require retreatment with antibiotics as this has not been shown to be beneficial. Furthermore, additional antibiotic therapy will promote colonization with resistant bacteria and can cause harm. Instead, care should be provided to either establish another diagnosis or provide ongoing support.

    The Chance Of Getting Lyme Disease

    Lyme disease growing in Canada

    Not all ticks in England carry the bacteria that causes Lyme disease.

    But it’s still important to be aware of ticks and to safely remove them as soon as possible, just in case.

    Ticks that may cause Lyme disease are found all over the UK, but high-risk places include grassy and wooded areas in southern and northern England and the Scottish Highlands.

    Ticks are tiny spider-like creatures that live in woods, areas with long grass, and sometimes in urban parks and gardens. They’re found all over the UK.

    Ticks do not jump or fly. They attach to the skin of animals or humans that brush past them.

    Once a tick bites into the skin, it feeds on blood for a few days before dropping off.

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    How Prevalent Is Ld In Canada

    Black-legged tick populations are well established in parts of British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and may be expanding. Migratory birds can bring infected ticks into nonendemic areas, and people may also become infected while travelling to other endemic areas in North America and Europe. In 2009, LD became a nationally reportable disease. The number of reported cases has increased from 128 in 2009 to an estimated 500 in 2013.

    Which Children Are At Risk For Lyme Disease

    A child is more at risk for Lyme disease in certain parts of the U.S. during the spring and summer months, when ticks are more active. Ticks live in wooded areas, low-growing grasslands, and yards. A child is more at risk outdoors in these places, or around a pet that has been in these areas.

    Lyme has been reported in nearly all states. The most cases have been reported in:

    • Northeastern states, such as Massachusetts and Connecticut
    • Mid-Atlantic states, such as New Jersey and Pennsylvania
    • Wisconsin and Minnesota

    Many cases have also been reported in Asia and Europe.

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