What Is Late Lyme Disease
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is caused by an infection with the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacteria is disseminated through tick bites. Infected ticks usually bite small mammals, who do not develop any kind of infection from the bacteria. When humans are exposed to B. Burgdorferi from a tick bite, however, they can develop Lyme disease.
People who work outside or spend time in woodland areas, where there is greater potential for exposure to tick bites, are most at risk of infection.
Lyme disease is a condition which progresses in stages:
Can Chronic Lyme Be Cured Dr Christine Green Answers Your Questions
Christine Green, MD, is a Stanford-trained, board-certified family medicine physician with 30 years of experience treating patients with tick-borne illness.
On the board of LymeDisease.org, Dr. Green is also Co-director of Education for Invisible International,, is on Bay Area Lyme Foundations Scientific Advisory Board and has served on the Education Committee for ILADS.
In this Q& A, she discusses common questions asked by patients about diagnosing and treating Lyme and other tick-borne diseases.
Achy Stiff Or Swollen Joints
Joint pain and stiffness, often intermittent, are early Lyme symptoms. Your joints may be inflamed, warm to the touch, painful, and swollen. You may have stiffness and limited range of motion in some joints .
Pain may move around. Sometimes your knees may hurt, whereas other times its your neck or your heels. You may also have bursitis . Bursae are the thin cushions between bone and surrounding tissue.
The pain may be severe, and it may be transitory. More than one joint may be affected. Most often the large joints are involved .
People often attribute joint problems to age, genetics, or sports. Lyme should be added to that list, as these statistics indicate:
- One study estimates that 80 percent of people with untreated Lyme have muscle and joint symptoms .
- Fifty percent of people with untreated Lyme have intermittent episodes of arthritis .
- Two-thirds of people have their first episode of joint pain within six months of the infection .
- Use of anti-inflammatory drugs may mask the actual number of people with joint swelling .
Joint pain that comes and goes, or moves from joint to joint, could be a sign of Lyme.
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Is There A Blood Test For Lyme Disease
If your doctor suspects that you have Lyme disease, they may order two blood tests. These will look for signs that your body is trying to fight it off. The results are most precise a few weeks after youâve been infected.
These tests are:
ELISA test. This test canât check for the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It can only look for your immune systemâs response to it.
Although itâs the most common way to check for Lyme disease, the ELISA test isnât perfect. It can sometimes give false âpositiveâ results. On the other hand, if you have it done too soon after youâve been infected, your body may not have developed enough antibodies for the test to detect them. This will give you a ânegativeâ result even though you do have Lyme disease.
Western blot test. Whether your ELISA test comes back positive or negative, your doctor will need to do this blood test, too.
A Western blot uses electricity to split certain proteins in your blood into patterns. This is then compared to the pattern of people known to have Lyme disease.
At least five band matches means that you have Lyme disease. Still, not all labs have the same standards. Thereâs a chance that you could get a âpositiveâ result from one and a ânegativeâ result from another.
- Alzheimerâs disease
Is Lyme Disease Worse The Second Time
In some cases, symptoms generally show up a lot more quickly with subsequent infections, so be on the lookout for rashes, fevers, headaches, joint pain, or fatigue that appear to be off topic. Finally, some patients develop chronic post-treatment, or Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome, which can be considered to be all or none of the symptoms..
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Eradication Of Lyme Disease
“I hope that it will continue moving forward in development and will become the first therapeutic to treat Lyme disease,” Lewis says. “It will be very important to see whether treating with hygromycin A will diminish the probability of developing chronic Lyme.”
But the plans go even further: Lewis’ team has also shown that feeding hygromycin-laced bait to mice can eliminate Borrelia burgdorferi infections. Theoretically at least, putting out such bait could eradicate Lyme disease from entire areas or even entire countries.
This idea is not entirely new: A field trial with doxycycline baits was successful. But widespread use of this drug for that purpose is undesirable because it could lead to many microbes developing antibiotic resistance. In the case of hygromycin, however, Lewis’ studies indicate that it is extremely difficult for Borrelia burgdorferi to develop a resistance.
The first field trial against Borrelia burgdorferi is scheduled to start next summer. And Lewis’ team is also investigating whether hygromycin A can treat other diseases caused by spirochetes, such as syphilis, which is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum.
This article was translated from German.
Ticks – a plague for humans and animals alike
The Main Controversies Surrounding Lyme Disease
The blood test the CDC recommends to diagnose Lyme checks for an immune response to the bacteria, not for the Borrelia itself. Thats why the test can be negative if the disease is present for less than a month. It takes at least a couple of weeks to mount an immune response that would turn the test positive. It is easier to diagnose Lyme if you have the classic bulls-eye rash that shows up a few days after the tick bite. In these cases, testing is not even necessary. But the rash only shows up in 80% of cases.
If making a diagnosis can be complex, the controversy about the treatment is so intense that some have even coined the dispute Lyme wars. The clash emerged from doctors offices, and spread to public hearings in statehouses around the country. One of the main points of contention is the duration of antibiotic treatment not only for acute Lyme but also for PTLD. The evidence to recommend a specific length of antibiotics treatment is scarce. Most physicians follow the two- to-four-week treatment the CDC recommends. Some studies funded by the National Institutes of Health did not show any benefit when patients used several months of antibiotics. However, there is anecdotal evidence from a few patients who improved after months of antibiotic treatment. The naysayers believe this is probably due to a placebo effect.
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Can You Get A Bullseye Rash From An Insect Bite
Bay Area Lyme. And many insect bites will cause redness or swelling at the site of the bite, especially if there is an allergic reaction. The erythema migrans, an expanding circular red skin rash , is distinctive to Lyme, though many Lyme patients will never show any rash at all.
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Ruling Out Other Diseases
Many other infections and medical conditions can produce fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue, including a very wide variety of common, generally benign viral illnesses. They can also produce some of the neurologic or cardiac features characteristic of early Lyme disease. The same tick that causes Lyme disease can also transmit other infections.
Co-Infections Transmitted by the Ixodes Tick
Babesiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , and human granulocytic anaplasmosis are transmitted by the same tick that carries Lyme disease. People may be co-infected with one or more of these infections, all of which can cause flu-like symptoms. If these symptoms persist and there is no rash, it is less likely that Lyme disease is present.
Other Tick-Borne Infections
A number of other tick-borne diseases may resemble Lyme disease. The most important of these is southern tick-associated rash illness , which is caused by the bite of the Lone star tick, usually in southern and Southeastern parts of the United States. It causes a rash very similar to Lyme disease. The bacterium responsible for STARI remains unknown, but may be B. lonestari.
Allergic Reactions and Insect Bites
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What Is The Healing Process Of A Spider Bite
Healing can take anywhere from a week up to eight weeks. Scarring. In some cases, depending on the severity of the spider bite, scarring may remain once the actual bite itself has healed. In some more severe cases where surgery was necessary, scarring may also be a result from treatment of the bite.
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Ongoing Symptoms Of Lyme Disease
A few people who are diagnosed and treated for Lyme disease continue to have symptoms, like tiredness, aches and loss of energy, that can last for years.
Its not clear why this happens to some people and not others. This means theres also no agreed treatment.
Speak to a doctor if your symptoms come back, or do not improve, after treatment with antibiotics.
The doctor may be able to offer you further support if needed, such as:
- referral for a care needs assessment
- telling your employer, school or higher education institution that you require a gradual return to activities
- communicating with children and families social care
Page last reviewed: 05 July 2021 Next review due: 05 July 2024
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Reason : The Lab Performing Your Lyme Disease Test
|IGeneX is considered the go-to laboratory by Lyme doctors and physicians for testing a patient for Lyme disease with the western blot test. While the western blot test isnt 100% accurate, and even IGeneX insinuates this, their methods and techniques used for identifying Lyme antibodies are more modern and advanced than other labs. For one example, they use a higher concentrated polyacrylamide gel to get better separation of the important 31 kDa to 34 kDa antigens. Having better separation of antigens allows a better discernment for identifying purposes. The 31 kDa antigen is a major outer surface protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. The 34 kDa antigen is another outer surface protein of Borrelia. Antibodies generated from these Borrelia antigens indicate not just a Lyme infection, but a late stage Lyme infection.|
Is It Normal For Lyme Disease Symptoms To Return After Stopping Antibiotics
This article was published more than 5 years ago. Some information may no longer be current.
An entomologist researches a tick in a vial. The small arachnids can transfer bacteria from deer and mice to people in the form of Lyme disease, a malady that can cause many problems if its not caught early.
After I’d been feeling really miserable for many months, my doctor finally concluded I had Lyme disease. He put me on antibiotics for a month and my symptoms went away. But now that I’ve stopped taking the antibiotics, I’m feeling horrible again. Is this typical for Lyme disease?
Lyme disease can be difficult to treat especially when it is not identified right away.
It is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread through the bites of tiny blood-sucking ticks that hide out in grassy meadows and wooded areas. The ticks originally pick up the bacteria from infected mice and deer.
Before the 1980s, Lyme disease was unknown in Canada and very few physicians have actually seen a case firsthand, says Dr. Gregory Taylor, Canada’s chief public health officer.
The early symptoms are flu-like and can include fatigue, fever, chills, headaches and muscle pain. “That could be virtually anything,” says Taylor.
Some patients will get a distinctive “bull’s-eye” rash around the site of the bite, but others do not.
In 2009, 128 cases of Lyme disease were reported to the Public Health Agency of Canada. In 2015, cases rose to over 700.
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How Can Lyme Disease Last For Years
Category: Health Published: October 9, 2015
If treated, Lyme disease does not last for years. However, for some people, the after-effects of the disease can linger for months and sometimes even years. Alternative medicine providers call this condition “Chronic Lyme disease,” but this title is simply wrong. For a person who has been infected with Lyme disease and then treated, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease is measurably no longer present in his body, even though he may still feel some symptoms. The correct title for this condition is therefore “Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome.”
Lyme disease is an infection caused by a bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacteria is delivered to humans through tick bites. From the bite site, the bacteria can enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. Usually, but not always, an infectious tick bite causes a characteristic red rash at the site of the bite. Other symptoms include fever, muscle soreness, headache, fatigue, and dizziness. In a few cases, symptoms can also include mood swings, memory loss, and sleep disturbance. If left untreated for too long, Lyme disease can lead to nerve damage, thereby causing shooting pain, numbness, and even paralysis.
The CDC states,
A Targeted Lyme Disease Treatment
But back to the optimism mentioned at the start of this article: During a recent study, a team under Kim Lewis at Northeastern University found that a compound called hygromycin A is completely harmless to animals and has little effect on most bacteria except so-called spirochete bacteria, named for their spiral shape. For those, it is deadly. And Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen that causes Lyme disease, belongs to just this group.
Hygromycin A is an antimicrobial agent found in soil. The substance was originally discovered in 1953. At the time, however, scientists dismissed it as ineffective, probably because it seemed too weak to fight normal pathogens. But Lewis considers it exceptionally effective against spirochetes.
Lewis’ team discovered the efficacy of hygromycin A while screening microorganisms in soil for antimicrobial compounds. “We set out to find such a compound that would selectively kill Borreliella burgdorferi , placing a bet, if you will, that Mother Nature had bothered to evolve a compound to selectively take out spirochetes that live in the soils,” Lewis says.
And indeed, Mother Nature has done exactly that.
The researchers have already licensed the compound to Flightpath, a biotech company specializing in Lyme disease, to conduct development studies and advance production of this treatment.
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Chronic Lyme Disease Patients Profoundly Debilitated
Many patients with chronic Lyme disease are profoundly debilitated. Investigators of the four NIH-sponsored retreatment trials documented that the patients quality of life was consistently worse than that of control populations and equivalent to that of patients with congestive heart failure. Pain levels were similar to those of post-surgical patients, and fatigue was on par with that seen in multiple sclerosis.
An LDo published survey of over 3,000 patients with chronic Lyme disease found that patients suffer a worse quality of life than most other chronic illnesses, including congestive heart failure, diabetes, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Over 70% of patients with chronic Lyme disease reported fair or poor health. Similar results have been found in other studies. Many of the symptoms associated with Lyme disease are common in other diseases. The CDC surveillance criteria for confirmed cases specifically exclude most of the symptoms that patients report, including fatigue, sleep impairment, joint pain, muscle aches, other pain, depression, cognitive impairment, neuropathy, and headaches. However, these common symptoms can be severe and may seriously affect quality of life.
Tobacco To Turn Off Ticks
Birds get ticks, too. The house finch has developed a strategy to fight ticks. A study in the Avian Biology journal has shown that breeding house finches use cigarette stubs to “proof” their nests. The nicotine wards off parasites, but sadly the neurotoxin can also have negative effects on the chicks.
Ticks – a plague for humans and animals alike
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Can Lyme Disease Symptoms Come And Go
Symptomscome and gocanSymptomsLyme diseasepain
. Beside this, can Lyme disease symptoms come back?
New Infection, Not Relapse, Brings Back Lyme Symptoms, Study Says. When people who have been treated for Lyme disease recover but later come down with its symptoms again, is the illness a relapse or a new infection? Now, a new study finds that repeat symptoms are from new infections, not from relapses.
Additionally, why do Lyme symptoms come and go? Suspect Lyme disease if you have symptoms that come and go, causing good and bad days the joint pain and muscle pain often migrates around your body, as does the tingling, numbness and burning sensations .
In this way, what does a Lyme flare up feel like?
These symptoms can include fatigue, joint or muscle aches, and cognitive dysfunction. They may last up to six months or longer. These symptoms can interfere with a person’s normal activities and may cause emotional distress as a result.
What are the 3 stages of Lyme disease?
Lyme disease occurs in three stages: early localized, early disseminated and late disseminated. However the stages can overlap and not all patients go through all three. A bulls-eye rash is usually considered one of the first signs of infection, but many people develop a different kind of rash or none at all.