Friday, May 27, 2022

Lyme Disease What Is It

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Spider Bite Rash Lyme Disease

What Its Like to Live with LYME DISEASE | Bustle

I was diagnosed with Lyme Disease back in 1996 after a phone call to the CDC that I made. They said the only disease that causes a bullseye rash is Lyme disease. I was bit in 1990 and it took me that much time to finally get treated because no doctor believed Lyme was really on the West coast. I hope you got treated.

Is Lyme Disease In Australia

The presence in Australia of Lyme disease, or a Lyme-like illness, is highly debatable. It has long been a contentious issue fuelled by emotional stories of patients suffering illness following exposure to ticks. However, there remains a lack of any compelling scientific evidence that the pathogen that causes Lyme disease is present in Australia.

The ticks known to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi overseas are not found in Australia, but we certainly have plenty of local ticks.

The Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, is generally thought to pose the greatest local health risk. The tick bites people, causing allergic reactions ranging from a mild itching with localised swelling, to a life-threatening anaphylactic condition and the development of a mammalian meat allergy. Laboratory studies show this tick cannot transmit Borrelia burgdorferi.

Could another tick species be involved?

Since the 1990s, scientists have searched for Borrelia burgdorferi in local ticks and wildlife but the bacteria have never been definitively detected. Perhaps the tick-borne pathogen responsible for the reported cases of Lyme-like illness is yet to be found. Or it simply may not exist.

Ixodes holocyclus

What Are The Second Stage Signs And Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

The symptoms of second stage, early disseminated, Lyme disease can be difficult to attribute. Symptoms include severe fatigue, fever, pain, intermittent weakness and achiness of the muscles and joints, numbness in arms and legs, vision changes, and cognitive dysfunction such as short-term memory difficulties and problems multitasking. These symptoms are not specific for Lyme disease and can make the diagnosis of second stage Lyme disease very challenging.

More recognizable Lyme disease nervous system manifestations include facial paralysis , or meningitis with severe headache and stiff neck. Notable cardiac manifestations include passing out or feeling faint from an abnormally slow heart rate, irregular heart palpitations, or unexplained difficulty tolerating exercise. Meningitis and carditis are both potentially serious Lyme disease conditions and warrant immediate medical attention.

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How Do You Acquire This Borrelia Infection

Humans and animals are infected with the bacteria through hard-tick bites. The borrelia survive in the midgut of the ticks. The immature nymphs are most likely to transmit the infection. The ticks feed on infected animals and then on humans.

Ticks occur in high grass, brush, woodland and leafy forest. The main hosts for the ticks and borrelia are small to medium-sized animals in Europe and deer in North America.

  • In North America, the tick vectors are Ixodes scapularis, I. pacificus, and 4 other tick species
  • In Europe and Asia, the tick vectors are I. ricinus, I. hexagonus, and I. persulcatus

Signs Of Lyme Disease That Appear On Your Skin

If Left Untreated, Lyme Disease Could Prove Fatal

Signs of Lyme disease

If you see a rash or another sign of Lyme disease on your skin, see your primary doctor right away. When caught early and treated, Lyme disease can be cured with antibiotics and most people recover fully.

Lyme disease is caused by a bite from a black-legged tick. If you are bitten by this tick and develop Lyme disease, you may see a bulls-eye rash. Its a common sign of Lyme disease, but its not the only sign.

Lyme disease occurs in stages. Heres what you may see on your skin during each stage.

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Can You Prevent Lyme Disease

The best way to prevent Lyme disease is to protect yourself from ticks. Cover up as much skin as you can when you’re going to be in wooded or grassy areas. Wear a hat, a long-sleeved shirt, and long pants with the legs tucked into your socks. And keep in mind that it’s easier to see ticks on light-coloured clothes.

Use a bug repellent that has the chemical DEET to keep away ticks. Use products that contain 0.5% permethrin on your clothing and outdoor gear, such as your tent. You can also buy clothing already treated with permethrin. Permethrin is not available as an insect repellent in Canada, but travel health clinics may be able to advise you on how to buy permethrin or permethrin-treated gear.

Check your pets for ticks after they’ve been outside. You can’t get Lyme disease from your pet. But your pet can bring infected ticks inside. These ticks can fall off your pet and attach to you. Check your clothing and outdoor gear after you have been outside. Remove any ticks you find. Then put your clothing in a clothes dryer on high heat for 1 hour to kill any ticks that might remain.

Transmission Of Bb Via Ixodes Spp Vectors

The black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast, are the primary vectors of Bb in the USA. In endemic areas, the proportion of Ixodes spp. ticks infected with Bb can be remarkably high. One recent survey of the pathogen burden of 197 Ixodes scapularis ticks collected from New York and Connecticut where LD is endemic, revealed 111 ticks were infected with Bb and 37 were co-infected with more than one human pathogen . The high pathogen burden is consistent with previous tick surveys in the same region . In contrast, the percent of infected ticks in other regions of the USA is much lower. In recently published surveys across California, for example, fewer than 5% of Ixodes spp. ticks were infected . Ixodes ticks sometimes carry multiple strains of Bb that may impact the course of disease in people that are co-infected. One tick survey showed that 39% of Ixodes ticks in North America are infected with multiple genotypes of Bb .

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Can Lyme Disease Be Prevented Or Avoided

The best way to prevent Lyme disease is to avoid being bitten by ticks. When you are outdoors, follow these guidelines:

  • Avoid areas that are wooded, brushy, or have tall grass.
  • Walk in the center of trails.
  • Use an insect repellent with at least 20% DEET. It can be put on clothing or sparingly on the skin. Dont apply it to the face or hands of children.
  • Treat clothing, tents, or other gear with repellents containing 0.5% permethrin.
  • Wear light-colored clothing. This makes it easier to see and remove ticks from your clothes.
  • Wear a long-sleeved shirt and long pants. Tuck your pant legs into your socks or boots for added protection.

After you get home, check everything and everyone for ticks.

  • Bathe or shower as soon as you can to wash off any ticks that have not attached to you.
  • Check your entire body for ticks. Use a mirror for places you cant see. Check your children and your pets. Common tick locations include the back of the knees, groin area, underarms, ears, scalp, and the back of the neck.
  • Check any gear you used, including coats, backpacks, or tents.

Tumble dry clothes or blankets on high heat in the dryer for 10 to 15 minutes. This should kill any ticks. If clothes are dirty, wash them in hot water and dry on high heat for 60 minutes.

Which Areas Are More Likely To Have It

Understanding Lyme Disease

The tick that causes Lyme disease has been moving from the Northeast and upper Midwest into the Southern and Western U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Cases in California and Florida are on the rise. After a drop between 2017 and 2018, the numbers jumped a little bit in 2019.

But most Lyme cases in 2019 were in 15 states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New

Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Washington, DC, is also a hotspot.

In 2019, Pennsylvania had the most Lyme infections, with 6,763. New York was next, with 2,847 cases.

In the Southern U.S., where itâs hotter, ticks stay under leaves so they don’t dry out. This means people donât get Lyme from Southern ticks very often because they don’t usually come out to bite.

Even though people only report about 30,000 cases of Lyme infection in the U.S. each year, there are actually around 476,000 a year. The same tick also can spread other diseases, including babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and Powassan virus. Those diseases are also on the rise in the U.S.

Whoâs likeliest to get Lyme disease?

Boys up to age 15 and men between the ages of 40 and 60 are the most likely to get Lyme disease. Thatâs because they tend to play outside and go camping, hunting, and hiking.

Why are there more ticks now than there used to be?

There are several reasons why Lyme is spreading. Some of these are:

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How You Get Lyme Disease

If a tick bites an animal carrying the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, the tick can become infected. The tick can then transfer the bacteria to a human by biting them.

Ticks can be found in any areas with deep or overgrown plants where they have access to animals to feed on.

They’re common in woodland and moorland areas, but can also be found in gardens or parks.

Ticks don’t jump or fly. They climb on to your clothes or skin if you brush against something they’re on. They then bite into the skin and start to feed on your blood.

Generally, you’re more likely to become infected if the tick is attached to your skin for more than 24 hours. Ticks are very small and their bites are not painful, so you may not realise you have one attached to your skin.

How Is Lyme Disease Transmitted

Lyme disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick and it is not spread from person to person. However, Lyme disease can spread in the community if large areas of tall grasses and brush that surround homes or other places where people congregate become areas where infected ticks reside and where people walk or congregate. Methods to reduce tall grasses and brushy areas where ticks like to live will help control spread of Lyme disease to other individuals. People can protect themselves from tick bites by utilizing repellent sprays and by covering their body with long pants and long-sleeve shirts to help prevent ticks from reaching exposed skin.

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Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

A circular or oval shape rash around a tick bite can be an early symptom of Lyme disease in some people.

The rash can appear up to 3 months after being bitten by an infected tick, but usually appears within 1 to 4 weeks. It can last for several weeks.

The rash can have a darker or lighter area in the centre and might gradually spread. It’s not usually hot or itchy.

The rash may be flat, or slightly raised, and look pink, red, or purple when it appears on white skin. It can be harder to see the rash on brown and black skin and it may look like a bruise.

Some people also get flu-like symptoms a few days or weeks after they were bitten by an infected tick, such as:

  • a high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
  • headache
  • tiredness and loss of energy

Some people with Lyme disease develop more severe symptoms months or years later.

This is more likely if treatment is delayed.

These more severe symptoms may include:

  • pain and swelling in joints
  • nerve problems such as pain or numbness
  • heart problems
  • trouble with memory or concentration

Help Us Help You Get The Treatment You Need

What is Lyme Disease? Symptoms and How to Cure it

Because of coronavirus , it can be hard to know what to do if you’re unwell. It’s important to get medical help if you think you need it.

  • For help from a GP use your GP surgery’s website, use an online service or app, or call the surgery.
  • For urgent medical help use the NHS 111 online service, or call 111 if you’re unable to get help online.
  • For life-threatening emergencies call 999 for an ambulance.

If you’re advised to go to hospital, it’s important to go.

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When Should You See A Doctor If You Think You Have Lyme

The rash is a pretty good indication that you may have been bitten. Take a photo of the rash and see your doctor. At this stage, treatment with antibiotics will probably work.

If you don’t have the rash but have symptoms like fatigue, fever, and headache but no respiratory symptoms like a cough, you may want to talk to your doctor.

How Is It Treated

Facial palsy is treated with oral antibiotics and Lyme meningitis/radiculoneuritis can either be treated with oral or intravenous antibiotics, depending on severity . Most people with Lyme disease respond well to antibiotics and fully recover. Varying degrees of permanent nervous system damage may develop in people who do not receive treatment in the early stages of illness and who develop late-stage Lyme disease.

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How To Treat Lyme Disease In Dogs

Lyme disease is treated with a longer course of an antibiotic, usually doxycycline. Dogs with common signs of Lyme disease usually respond to treatment within days and antibiotics are continued for up to a total of 28 days. Dogs with the rare kidney form of disease require aggressive treatment and prognosis is guarded.

What Treatment Is Available For Lyme Disease

Aurora man on what its like to live with Lyme disease

Localised or early Lyme disease generally responds well to appropriate antibiotics. Full cure is usually achieved if the disease is diagnosed and treated promptly, but the cure rate decreases the longer treatment is delayed. The choice of antibiotic depends on bacterial sensitivity.

Antibiotics used for erythema migrans include doxycycline, amoxicillin and cefuroxime. Secondline treatments are the macrolides, azithromycin and erythromycin. Intravenous penicillin and cetriaxone are used for more advanced Lyme disease. The route of administration and the duration of the course of antibiotics depends on the stage and organ involvement. It varies between 10 and 30 days. Late stage Lyme disease, especially neuroborreliosis, should be treated with intravenous antibiotics.

Some patients have persistent or recurrent symptoms of unknown origin after apparently successful antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease. This is called post-treatment Lyme borreliosis syndrome. It is believed to be an auto-immune response. Prolonged antibiotic treatment does not improve cure rates.

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What Are Signs And Symptoms Of The Third Stage Of Lyme Disease

Late stage Lyme disease can result when treatment is unsuccessful or started too late due to unrecognized symptoms or misdiagnosis. The late disseminated stage occurs months or years after initial infection and can have a major impact on a patients health and quality of life. Late Lyme arthritis is a third stage Lyme disease manifestation that involves fluid accumulation and pain in joints, particularly in the knee joints. Late neurologic disease is a 3rd stage condition that can also be debilitating and difficult to diagnose. Late disseminated Lyme disease symptoms include a variety of symptoms that are often neurologic in origin including: numbness in extremities, mental fogginess and concentration problems, and difficulty following conversations or processing information.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor

  • I found a tick embedded in my skin, but I cant get it out. What should I do?
  • Ive been bitten by a tick. Do I need to be seen?
  • Do I need a blood test to confirm Lyme disease?
  • Which antibiotic is best for me?
  • How long will I have to take the antibiotic?
  • What tick or insect repellent should I use for me or my child?
  • How long will the symptoms last?
  • What should I do if I still dont feel well a long time after I was bitten?

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What You Need To Know About Lyme Disease

  • Lyme disease is an infection caused by the spiral-shaped bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most commonly transmitted by a tick bite.

  • There are over 300,000 estimated new cases of Lyme disease in the United States each year.

  • The symptoms of Lyme disease depend on the how long the infection has been present in the body. The first sign of Lyme disease is often an expanding round or oval red “bullseye” rash.

  • If left untreated, people may develop neurological symptoms and heart problems, and have an approximately 60 percent chance of developing Lyme arthritis.

Stage : Late Disseminated Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease Id &  Treatments

Late disseminated Lyme disease occurs when the infection hasnt been treated in stages 1 and 2. Stage 3 can occur months or years after the tick bite.

This stage is characterized by:

  • arthritis of one or more large joints
  • brain disorders, such as encephalopathy, which can cause short-term memory loss, difficulty concentrating, mental fogginess, problems with following conversations and sleep disturbance
  • numbness in the arms, legs, hands, or feet

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How Will I Know If I Have Lyme Disease

Usually, a reddish expanding rash begins about three to 30 days after an infected tick bite. This rash occurs in about 70%-80% of individuals who become infected and spreads to about 12 inches in diameter and often forms a “bull’s-eye” pattern on the skin. The rash may appear on other parts of the body also and may not form the “bull’s-eye” pattern. Other symptoms and signs that may come and go and are considered later signs are as follows:

  • Bell’s palsy
  • Additional rash formation
  • Pain and swelling of the joints
  • Shooting pains that may interfere with sleep
  • Short-term memory problems
  • Inflammation of the brain and/or spinal cord

Some individuals are not sure they have been bitten by a tick these individuals who develop any of the symptoms above can be tested to see if they have evidence of Lyme disease. The testing should be done by their physician and the results must be carefully interpreted since the immunoassay tests for Lyme disease may sometimes give equivocal results. However, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a two-tiered immunoassay testing system for Lyme disease that is reasonably reliable.

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