Friday, May 27, 2022

Causes Of Lyme Disease In Humans

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Should You Use Antibiotics

What is Lyme Disease? | Lyme Disease Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Different antibiotics may be used to treat children and adults. The decision to take medicines for Lyme disease may be based on one or more of these factors:

  • You have symptoms of Lyme disease, especially the red, circular rash, and a history of exposure to ticks in geographic regions where Lyme disease is known to occur.
  • Blood tests show that you have antibodies to the Lyme disease bacteria in your blood, spinal fluid, or joint fluid.
  • You are pregnant or breastfeeding and are bitten by a tick.

What If A Tick Bites My Dog

The more ticks in your region, the likelier it is that your furry pal will bring them home.

Your dog is much more likely to be bitten by a tick than you are. And where Lyme disease is common, up to 25% of dogs have had it at some point.

About 10% of dogs with Lyme disease will get sick. 7-21 days after a tick bite, your dog might seem like theyâre walking on eggshells. They also might have a fever and enlarged lymph nodes. Plus, they might seem tired. Dogs also get antibiotics for Lyme.

What if my dog brings ticks into my home?

Use a tick control product on your pet to prevent Lyme disease. Also, have your dog vaccinated against Lyme.

Check your dogâs whole body each day for bumps. If you notice a swollen area, see if thereâs a tick there. If you find a tick, wear gloves while you use tweezers to separate it from your dog. Then, put it in soapy water or alcohol, or flush it down the toilet.

Use alcohol to clean the spot on your dog where the tick was attached. Keep an eye on that spot, and also on your dog to make sure theyâre behaving normally. If you notice any changes, check with your vet.

Show Sources

John Aucott, MD, assistant professor of medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine director, Johns Hopkins Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center.

CDC.

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: âVital Signs: Trends in Reported Vectorborne Disease Cases — United States and Territories, 2004-2016.â

American College of Rheumatology.

Chronic Lyme Disease And Post

Almost 30 years ago, clinicians began to report that some Lyme disease patients have persistent nonspecific symptoms after receiving an adequate course of therapy . In its 2006 guidelines, the Infectious Diseases Society of America created a working definition for this entity, now called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome or PTLDS: clinical symptoms persisting at least six months after treatment for Lyme disease in persons who lack objective evidence of treatment failure, reinfection, or relapse . PTLDS differs from CLD in one particularly important respect patients with PTLDS have unequivocal documentation for appropriately treated Lyme disease. PTLDS occurs in only a small percentage of treated patients. As noted by Lantos in an excellent review , only 222 of 5846 patients screened to participate in clinical trials for PTLDS had credible evidence for past Lyme disease, while less than 10% of patients in ten prospective studies of EM and early disseminated Lyme disease described persistent symptoms such as myalgias or fatigue 9 or more months following treatment. Fortunately, multiple longitudinal studies in the U.S. and Europe report that functional impairment by PTLDS diminishes over time .

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What If I Think I Have Been Bitten

If you believe you have been bitten or know you have been bitten, you should:

  • With tweezers, remove the ticks head, taking care not to crush the ticks body or head as you remove it
  • During the next month, keep a close eye on your general health and any symptoms you may be experiencing tick bites that cause Lyme disease often result in a bulls eye red ring around the bite.
  • If you are not able to remove the tick yourself, seek medical help as soon as possible
  • To avoid developing Lyme disease long-term, request antibiotic treatment with your doctor or health professional within the next 24 hours.

Diagnosing And Treating Your Dog

5 Warning Signs of Lyme Disease to Never Ignore

Diagnosing your dog for Lyme disease requires the veterinarian to run an antibody test. This test takes a closer look at the bodys immunity. The response of the immune system is measurable by the test.

The experts can see whether the antibody for Lyme disease is present for making a correct diagnosis. This will show that the dogs body has been fighting the disease. If the blood reports show a high volume of antibodies then your veterinarian can make a diagnosis. Once the experts confirm the presence of the infection, they will then start the treatment.

Fortunately, the treatment of Lyme disease is straightforward and includes taking antibiotics and painkillers. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine available. Scientists continue to work on developing a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease.

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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

Tick bites are usually painless and most people do not know they have been bitten. Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease vary greatly from person to person, and may appear anywhere between 3 to 30 days after a person has been bitten.

Symptoms often include:

  • Swollen lymph nodes.
  • Skin rash.

One sign of infection can be an expanding rash, sometimes referred to as a “bull’s eye” rash because it may have rings spreading from the bite site ). It is important to note that rashes without the bull’s eye may occur, and that rashes do not appear in every case of Lyme disease infection.

The PHAC states that if left untreated, more severe symptoms may occur and can last from months to years. Severe symptoms may include:

  • Severe headaches
  • Additional EM skin rashes..
  • Neurological disorders
  • Nervous system disorders, including facial paralysis or Bell’s palsy .
  • Intermittent muscle, joint, tendon, and bone aches
  • Arthritis with severe joint pain and swelling, particularly the knees and less commonly in other joints such as the ankle, elbow, and wrists.

If untreated, a condition called late disseminated Lyme disease may occur. PHAC reports symptoms include recurring arthritis , nervous system and/or neurological problems. Symptoms can also include numbness and/or paralysis . Deaths from Lyme disease are rare but may occur.

PHAC provides more information on Lyme Disease.

Can Lyme Disease Be Treated

In most cases, yes. Antibiotics can effectively treat Lyme disease, especially when treatment begins early. Cases that reach the later stages of the disease, however, can be difficult to treat and some symptoms can persist.

PHAC reports that removing the tick within 24-36 hours usually prevents infection.

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How Can You Reduce Tick Habitats Near Your Home

Here are some ways to limit exposure to ticks near your home:

  • Mow the lawn regularly to keep the grass short
  • Remove leaf litter, brush and weeds at the edge of the lawn and around stonewalls and woodpiles
  • Stack firewood neatly and in a dry area
  • Put barriers to exclude deer around your home and seal stonewalls and small openings to discourage rodent activity
  • Place children’s recreational playground sets, patios and decks away from the yard edges and trees. Place them on a woodchip or mulch foundation and in a sunny location, if possible.
  • Treat pets that are commonly exposed to ticks with oral or topic acaricides as they could carry ticks into the home

Who Is At Risk

Lyme Disease, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, DIagnosis and Treatment.

Many occupations may be at risk, including forestry, farming, veterinarians, construction, landscaping, ground keepers, park or wildlife management, and anyone who either works outside or has contact with animals that may carry ticks

Similarly, any person who spends a lot time outdoors , especially in grassy or wooded areas may also be at risk.

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The Chance Of Getting Lyme Disease

Not all ticks in England carry the bacteria that causes Lyme disease.

But it’s still important to be aware of ticks and to safely remove them as soon as possible, just in case.

Ticks that may cause Lyme disease are found all over the UK, but high-risk places include grassy and wooded areas in southern and northern England and the Scottish Highlands.

Ticks are tiny spider-like creatures that live in woods, areas with long grass, and sometimes in urban parks and gardens. They’re found all over the UK.

Ticks do not jump or fly. They attach to the skin of animals or humans that brush past them.

Once a tick bites into the skin, it feeds on blood for a few days before dropping off.

How Do I Know If I Have A Tick Bite

Many people who develop the disease do not remember seeing ticks or being bitten. Tick bites commonly occur from May to September in North America, although blacklegged ticks can be active most of the year. Ticks sometimes move around on the body but they usually attach themselves to the skin and stay in one place. Before feeding, ticks look like small, brown scabs or freckles. After feeding, ticks may swell considerably, and could be as big as a raisin or a small grape.

Follow the link for more information about blacklegged ticks from the Government of Canada.

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Causes Risks And Complications Of Lyme Disease

Hannah, Facty Staff

Lyme disease is caused by bacteria that travel to humans through bites from an infected black-legged or deer tick. Cases of Lyme disease are prevalent in all 50 states, with the Northeast having the highest number of reported cases. The symptoms come in three stages and can vary depending on the individual bite. People who show the symptoms after being bitten by a tick require medical attention.

What Are The Treatments For Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease Contagious

Lyme disease is treated with antibiotics. The earlier you are treated, the better it gives you the best chance of fully recovering quickly.

After treatment, some patients may still have pain, fatigue, or difficulty thinking that lasts more than 6 months. This is called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome . Researchers don’t know why some people have PTLDS. There is no proven treatment for PTLDS long-term antibiotics have not been shown to help. However, there are ways to help with the symptoms of PTLDS. If you have been treated for Lyme disease and still feel unwell, contact your health care provider about how to manage your symptoms. Most people do get better with time. But it can take several months before you feel all better.

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How Can Lyme Disease Be Prevented

In areas where ticks are found, people should know about the risk of Lyme disease and should take precautions to protect themselves. Be aware of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease so it can be detected and treated promptly. PHAC states that removing ticks within 24 to 36 hours after the tick bite usually prevents infection.

  • Know the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease.
  • Contact a doctor immediately if you have an illness that resembles Lyme disease. If you were able to save the tick, bring it to your medical appointment as it may help the doctor.
  • PHAC has also prepared a Lyme disease tool kit which provides material to raise awareness and educate.

    What Are The Symptoms

    One sign of Lyme disease is a round, red rash that spreads at the site of a tick bite. This rash can get very large.

    Flu-like symptoms are also common. People in the early stages of Lyme disease may feel very tired and have headaches, sore muscles and joints, and a fever.

    These symptoms can start at any time, from 3 days to up to a month after you have been bitten. Some people don’t have any symptoms when they are in the early stages of Lyme disease. And they may not even remember getting a tick bite.

    If Lyme disease goes untreated, you can have more serious symptoms over time. These include:

    • Swelling and joint pain .
    • Tingling and numbness in your hands, feet, and back.
    • A lack of energy that does not get better.
    • Trouble focusing your thoughts.
    • Weakness or paralysis in your face muscles.

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    Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

    People with Lyme disease may react to it differently, and the symptoms can vary in severity.

    Although Lyme disease is commonly divided into three stages early localized, early disseminated, and late disseminated symptoms can overlap. Some people will also present in a later stage of disease without having symptoms of earlier disease.

    These are some of the more common symptoms of Lyme disease:

    • a flat, circular rash that looks like a red oval or bulls-eye anywhere on your body
    • other flu-like symptoms

    These symptoms may occur soon after the infection, or months or years later.

    Your child may have Lyme disease and not have the bulls-eye rash. According to an early study, results showed roughly 89 percent of children had a rash.

    Lyme disease is best treated in the early stages. Treatment for early localized disease is a simple 10- to 14-day course of oral antibiotics to eliminate the infection.

    Medications used to treat Lyme disease include:

    • doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime, which are first-line treatments in adults and children
    • cefuroxime and amoxicillin, which are used to treat women who are nursing or breastfeeding

    Intravenous antibiotics are used for some forms of Lyme disease, including those with cardiac or central nervous system involvement.

    After improvement and to finish the course of treatment, healthcare providers will typically switch to an oral regimen. The complete course of treatment usually takes 1428 days.

    Lifecycle Of Blacklegged Ticks

    Ticks & Lyme Disease

    The lifecycle of blacklegged ticks generally lasts two years. During this time, they go through four life stages: egg, six-legged larva, eight-legged nymph, and adult. After the eggs hatch, the ticks must have a blood meal at every stage to survive.

    Relative sizes of several ticks at different life stages. In general, adult ticks are approximately the size of a sesame seed and nymphal ticks are approximately the size of a poppy seed.

    Blacklegged ticks can feed from mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The ticks need to have a new host at each stage of their life, as shown below:

    This diagram shows the lifecycle of blacklegged ticks that can transmit Lyme disease.

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    How To Remove A Tick

    If you find a tick on your skin or your childs skin, remove it by gently gripping it as close to the skin as possible, preferably using fine-toothed tweezers. Pull steadily away from the skin.

    Do not use a lit cigarette end, a match head or volatile oils to force the tick out. Some veterinary surgeries and pet shops sell inexpensive tick removal devices which may be useful if you frequently spend time in areas where there are ticks.

    Is Lyme Disease Curable What Is The Prognosis Of Lyme Disease

      Lyme disease is usually curable with antibiotics. This is so true that some authors of Lyme disease research have stated that the most common cause of lack of response of Lyme disease to antibiotic therapy is a lack of Lyme disease, to begin with! The type of antibiotic depends on the stage of the disease and what areas of the body are affected. Early illness is usually effectively treated with medications taken by mouth, for example, doxycycline , amoxicillin , or cefuroxime axetil . This antibiotic therapy generally results in a rapid cure of Lyme disease. Of note, doxycycline should not be used in pregnancy or children under 8 years of age.

      Therefore, if a person finds a typical bulls-eye skin rash developing in an area of a tick bite, they should seek medical attention as soon as possible. Generally, antibiotic treatment resolves the rash within one or two weeks with no long-term consequences. Later illnesses such as nervous-system disease might require intravenous drugs examples are ceftriaxone and penicillin G. There are no home remedies to treat Lyme disease.

      In those people with two or more episodes of erythema migrans rash, even years apart, it is felt that the episodes represent different infections or reinfection rather than persistence of the original infection.

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      Are Some Locations More At Risk Than Others

      Yes and no. There are areas in which the bacteria is endemic meaning the disease is established and present more or less continually in that community.

      In Canada, blacklegged tick populations have been confirmed or are growing in the following areas:

      • Southern British Columbia.
      • Southern New Brunswick and Grand Manan Island.
      • South shore and northern mainland Nova Scotia.

      However, it is important to note that ticks can be spread by birds, in particular songbirds that feed off the forest floor. Because these birds are migratory, there is the potential for new populations of the bacteria to spread across the country. This fact means that you do not have to be in an endemic or high-risk area to be at risk of contacting ticks and the disease.

      Who Is At Risk For Lyme Disease

      Lyme Disease Symptoms and Treatment with prevention Tips

      Anyone can get a tick bite. But people who spend lots of time outdoors in wooded, grassy areas are at a higher risk. This includes campers, hikers, and people who work in gardens and parks.

      Most tick bites happen in the summer months when ticks are most active and people spend more time outdoors. But you can get bitten in the warmer months of early fall, or even late winter if temperatures are unusually high. And if there is a mild winter, ticks may come out earlier than usual.

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      Where Are Ticks Found

      Ticks can be found in any areas with deep or overgrown vegetation where they have access to animals to feed on.

      Although this means they are most common in woodland and heath areas, they may also be found in gardens or parks where this kind of vegetation exists.

      Groups at risk

      The groups most at risk of getting Lyme disease include those who work in woodland and heath areas and those who take part in activities in these areas. For example:

      • hikers
      • soldiers
      • gamekeepers

      Most tick bites occur in late spring, early summer and autumn because these are the times of year when most people take part in outdoor activities, such as hiking and camping.

      Read more about preventing Lyme disease.

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