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How Is Lyme Disease Caused

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How To Avoid Tick Bites

Lyme Disease Prophylaxis After Tick Bite

To reduce the chance of being bitten:

  • cover your skin while walking outdoors and tuck your trousers into your socks
  • use insect repellent on your clothes and skin products containing DEET are best
  • stay on clear paths whenever possible
  • wear light-coloured clothing so ticks are easier to see and brush off

Lyme Disease: Ankle Pain

Undiagnosed & untreated Lyme disease can progress to Lyme arthritis and cause joint pain, including stiff, swollen and painful ankles .

Lyme arthritis occurs when the bacteria responsible for the Lyme infection enter the joints and inflame the tissues. In many cases Lyme arthritis episodes are short-lived, and can recur for months to years after the initial tick bite.

Lyme disease is only one possible cause of swollen or painful ankle joints. Whatever the cause, effective & lasting treatment starts with an expert evaluation by a foot and ankle specialist. Back to top

Who Gets Lyme Disease

Anyone bitten by an infected deer tick can get Lyme disease. Most U.S. cases of Lyme disease happen in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin. But Lyme disease is found in other parts of the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Australia too.

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How Long Does Lyme Disease Last

They may last up to six months or longer. These symptoms can interfere with a person’s normal activities and may cause emotional distress as a result. However, most people’s symptoms improve after six months to a year. It’s not known why some people develop post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome and others don’t.

How Do You Feel When You Have Lyme Disease

5 Warning Signs of Lyme Disease to Never Ignore

Erythema migrans is one of the hallmarks of Lyme disease, although not everyone with Lyme disease develops the rash. Some people develop this rash at more than one place on their bodies. Other symptoms. Fever, chills, fatigue, body aches, headache, neck stiffness and swollen lymph nodes can accompany the rash.

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Lyme Disease Cause Signs And Treatment

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by a tick bite. Symptoms vary depending on how long someone has been infected.

Borrelia burgdorferi is the bacteria that causes Lyme disease in Rhode Island. Other types of Borrelia bacteria cause Lyme disease in the Mid-West, Europe and Asia.

Of all of the infections transmitted by tick and mosquito bites in the United States, Lyme disease is the most common. Rhode Island has the fifth highest rate of Lyme disease in the country. In 2018, there were 1,111 cases of Lyme disease in Rhode Island. Most cases of Lyme disease occur between the months of May through September with a peak in July.

Can Lyme Disease Be Prevented

People aren’t able to become immune to Lyme disease. So even if you’ve had Lyme disease, you can get it again. No vaccine is available currently to prevent the disease.

The FDA approved a Lyme vaccine called LYMErix in 1998. The vaccine was not 100% effective, however. The FDA still recommended preventing the disease in other ways. In 2002, the company that made LYMErix said it would no longer offer the vaccine.

To help prevent Lyme disease, follow these guidelines.

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How Is Lyme Disease Treated

With early-stage Lyme disease, youâll take antibiotics for about 10 days to 3 weeks. The most common ones are amoxicillin, cefuroxime, and doxycycline. The antibiotics will almost always cure your infection. If they donât, you might get other antibiotics either by mouth or as a shot.

If you donât treat your Lyme infection, you might need oral antibiotics for symptoms like weakened face muscles and irregular heartbeat. You may need antibiotics if you have meningitis, inflammation in your brain and spinal cord, or more severe heart problems.

If your Lyme is late stage, the doctor might give you antibiotics either by mouth or as a shot. If it causes arthritis, youâll get arthritis treatment.

Thereâs no therapy for post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.

Gastrointestinal Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

What is Lyme Disease? | Lyme Disease Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

The spirochete that causes Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi and the associated tickborne infections such as Bartonella and Babesia can directly affect any organ system in the body, including the gastrointestinal tract. About 80% of the immune system is located around the digestive tract, so digestive health influences the immune response. Gastrointestinal symptoms of Lyme disease range from food intolerances to constipation.

Rarely does acute Lyme disease cause gastrointestinal symptoms, but occasionally nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and abdominal pain can occur. More commonly, digestive symptoms such as constipation, gas/bloating, and abdominal discomfort occur in chronic or late-stage Lyme disease. Lyme bacteria can directly infect the gastrointestinal tract causing inflammation that creates digestive symptoms. In turn, digestive issues can cause immune dysregulation increasing susceptibility to chronic infections. Whether digestive problems are a result of Lyme disease or increase the susceptibility to chronic infections, it is essential to address the underlying issues to restore health more quickly and effectively.

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The Problem Of Being Successfully Treated For Lyme Disease And The Continuation Of Symptoms

This is a frustration we often see in our cervical spine instability patients. They have been declared recovered, yet symptoms persist.

In December 2017 research paper, lead by Alison W Rebman at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine published in the journal Frontiers in Medicine these observations:

Although a physical exam and clinical laboratory tests showed few objective abnormalities, standardized symptom questionnaires revealed that patients with post-treatment Lyme Disease symptoms are highly and clinically significantly symptomatic, with poor health-related quality of life.

Post-treatment Lyme Disease symptoms patients exhibited levels of fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, and depression which were both clinically relevant and statistically significantly higher than controls.

As the prevalence of post-treatment Lyme Disease symptoms continues to rise, there will be an increased need for physician education to more effectively identify and manage post-treatment Lyme Disease symptoms as part of integrated patient care.

A second paper published in 2021 , and again lead by Alison W. Rebman at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine made many observations into the symptoms of Lyme Disease. Some of these findings included neck pain of unknown origin. Here are some brief learning points from this paper.

Cant Get Better 4 Signs Your Aches & Pains Could Be Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is the number one vector-borne epidemic in the world and mimics many common diseases and autoimmune illnesses. If youve been told that you suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, an autoimmune disease like MS, or are just getting old, it is possible that you suffer from the number one infectious cause of these symptoms.

The Center for Disease Control released data showing a tenfold increase in the number of cases of Lyme disease, with approximately one million Americans reported having been exposed to it in 2012. So if you go to a doctor complaining of fatigue with joint and muscle pain, and have a negative blood test, its possible you may have contracted Lyme disease. How can you know whether you have a tick-borne illness causing your symptoms, though? Here are four signs to watch for:

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Other Causes Of Lyme Disease Symptoms

Sometimes people think they have the symptoms of Lyme disease, but it is a different disease caused by ticks. Diseases caused by tick bites that are known in Australia are:

  • Queensland tick typhus
  • Q fever
  • mammalian meat allergy

Sometimes there is no known diagnosis for symptoms such as fatigue, disordered thinking, disturbances of the senses, joint pain and headaches. These symptoms are real and can be very debilitating. In this case, you doctor will work with you to manage the symptoms and improve your quality of life.

How Can You Reduce Tick Habitats Near Your Home

Natural Treatment For Lyme Disease

Here are some ways to limit exposure to ticks near your home:

  • Mow the lawn regularly to keep the grass short
  • Remove leaf litter, brush and weeds at the edge of the lawn and around stonewalls and woodpiles
  • Stack firewood neatly and in a dry area
  • Put barriers to exclude deer around your home and seal stonewalls and small openings to discourage rodent activity
  • Place children’s recreational playground sets, patios and decks away from the yard edges and trees. Place them on a woodchip or mulch foundation and in a sunny location, if possible.
  • Treat pets that are commonly exposed to ticks with oral or topic acaricides as they could carry ticks into the home

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What Do I Do If I Find A Tick On My Skin

Dont panic. Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skins surface as possible. Pull up with steady, even pressure. Be careful not to squeeze or twist the tick body. Sometimes parts of the tick remain in the skin. You can leave them alone or carefully remove them the same way you would a splinter. Do not use heat , petroleum jelly, or other methods to try to make the tick back out on its own. These methods are not effective.

Wash the area where the tick was attached thoroughly with soap and water. Keep an eye on the area for a few weeks and note any changes. Call your doctor if you develop a rash around the area where the tick was attached. Be sure to tell your doctor that you were bitten by a tick and when it happened.

Key Points For Healthcare Providers

  • Antibody-based Lyme disease tests have excellent sensitivity in patients with Lyme arthritis. PCR can be used as an adjunctive diagnostic test to identify DNA in synovial fluid but should not be the first lab test used.
  • Lyme arthritis can be mistaken for septic arthritis, especially in children. Whereas septic arthritis may require surgical intervention, Lyme arthritis generally does not.
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    What Are Signs And Symptoms Of The Third Stage Of Lyme Disease

    Late stage Lyme disease can result when treatment is unsuccessful or started too late due to unrecognized symptoms or misdiagnosis. The late disseminated stage occurs months or years after initial infection and can have a major impact on a patients health and quality of life. Late Lyme arthritis is a third stage Lyme disease manifestation that involves fluid accumulation and pain in joints, particularly in the knee joints. Late neurologic disease is a 3rd stage condition that can also be debilitating and difficult to diagnose. Late disseminated Lyme disease symptoms include a variety of symptoms that are often neurologic in origin including: numbness in extremities, mental fogginess and concentration problems, and difficulty following conversations or processing information.

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    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are prominent. Lyme patients tend to have trouble with mood regulation, cognition, energy, sensory processing, and/or sleep. This can manifest into paranoia, hallucinations, mania, and/or obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Memory loss and concentration issues mirror other psychological disorders.

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    Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    • I found a tick embedded in my skin, but I cant get it out. What should I do?
    • Ive been bitten by a tick. Do I need to be seen?
    • Do I need a blood test to confirm Lyme disease?
    • Which antibiotic is best for me?
    • How long will I have to take the antibiotic?
    • What tick or insect repellent should I use for me or my child?
    • How long will the symptoms last?
    • What should I do if I still dont feel well a long time after I was bitten?

    Achy Stiff Or Swollen Joints

    Joint pain and stiffness, often intermittent, are early Lyme symptoms. Your joints may be inflamed, warm to the touch, painful, and swollen. You may have stiffness and limited range of motion in some joints .

    Pain may move around. Sometimes your knees may hurt, whereas other times its your neck or your heels. You may also have bursitis . Bursae are the thin cushions between bone and surrounding tissue.

    The pain may be severe, and it may be transitory. More than one joint may be affected. Most often the large joints are involved .

    People often attribute joint problems to age, genetics, or sports. Lyme should be added to that list, as these statistics indicate:

    • One study estimates that 80 percent of people with untreated Lyme have muscle and joint symptoms .
    • Fifty percent of people with untreated Lyme have intermittent episodes of arthritis .
    • Two-thirds of people have their first episode of joint pain within six months of the infection .
    • Use of anti-inflammatory drugs may mask the actual number of people with joint swelling .

    Summary:

    Joint pain that comes and goes, or moves from joint to joint, could be a sign of Lyme.

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    What Happens At Your Appointment

    The GP will ask about your symptoms and consider any rash or recent tick bites you know about.

    Lyme disease can be difficult to diagnose. It has similar symptoms to other conditions and there’s not always an obvious rash.

    2 types of blood test are available to help confirm or rule out Lyme disease. But these tests are not always accurate in the early stages of the disease.

    You may need to be retested if you still have Lyme disease symptoms after a negative result.

    Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

    Ignore Lyme Disease Symptoms and You Could Risk Severe Complications ...

    The key to Lyme disease is prevention and this requires an interprofessional team approach. All healthcare workers including the nurse practitioner, pharmacist, and primary care provider should provide patient education on measures to prevent tick bites while hiking or working outdoors. In areas where ticks are common, cleaning up of the environment by removing the underbrush and spraying an insecticide may reduce the tick burden in the area. The outdoors person should be told to wear appropriate garments and be familiar with the skin features of the tick bite. The nurse should educate the patient on how to remove the tick from the skin and when to seek medical assistance. The pharmacist should educate the patient on medication compliance for those who have been confirmed to have acquired Lyme disease.

    Nurses should educate parents how to inspect their children for ticks at the end of an outdoor event, in an endemic area. While there are many repellants on the market, it is best to avoid them as the risk of harm is greater than any benefit. If one is going to use a repellant, DEET is the one product that is safe, however, it is not 100% effective. finally, the pharmacist should educate the patient about the harms of taking prophylactic doxycycline a better strategy is to remove the tick as soon as it is visualized.

    Outcomes

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    Treatment For Neurological Lyme Disease

    After defining the problem, she moves on to solutions. The next section deals with pharmaceutical approaches to Lyme disease in the brain, including an explanation of the blood-brain barrier and what drugs can effectively penetrate it. She discusses medications that reduce inflammation, as well as those to stabilize neurological function, balance mood and help people think more clearly.

    Section 3 discusses natural approaches to Lyme disease in the brain: antimicrobials, such as Cats Claw and teasel root anti-inflammatories, such as curcumin and stephania root antioxidants, such as glutathione neurotransmitter support and essential oils such as peppermint and frankincense.

    Section 4 deals with nutrition. Readers of her earlier book, The Lyme Diet, will find familiar themes: avoid gluten, dairy, sugar, caffeine, alcohol and additives such as MSG.

    Ducharme explains about therapies to help the brain, including neurofeedback, Brainwave Entrainment, and hyperbaric oxygen. She covers sleep and exercise. She reviews different kinds of psychotherapy for patients with Lyme brain.

    Signs And Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

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    Overview

    Lyme disease is an underreported, under-researched, and often debilitating disease transmitted by spirochete bacteria. The spiral-shaped bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, are transmitted by blacklegged deer ticks. Lymes wide range of symptoms mimic those of many other ailments, making it difficult to diagnose .

    The blacklegged ticks can also transmit other disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. These are known as coinfections . These ticks that transmit Lyme are increasing their geographical spread. As of 2016, they were found in about half the counties in 43 of 50 states in the United States .

    Lyme is the fifth most reported of notifiable diseases in the United States, with an estimated 329,000 new cases found annually . Some studies estimate that there are as many as 1 million cases of Lyme in the United States every year .

    Most people with Lyme who are treated right away with three weeks of antibiotics have a good prognosis.

    But if youre not treated for weeks, months, or even years after infection, Lyme becomes more difficult to treat. Within days of the bite, the bacteria can move to your central nervous system, muscles and joints, eyes, and heart .

    Here is a list of 13 common signs and symptoms of Lyme disease.

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    Imaging For Lyme Arthritis

    X-rays are a helpful diagnostic tool to identify the cause of arthritis and pain. Joint space narrowing is the hallmark finding on X-ray in osteoarthritis, and not seen in other causes of joint pain. Lyme disease rarely causes changes of the bones on X-ray.

    Soft tissue swelling will be seen with Lyme disease and trauma, not in other conditions.

    An MRI of a joint is useful at differentiating Lyme arthritis from septic arthritis or structural damage. In Lyme disease, an MRI will demonstrate joint effusion, synovitis, and muscle edema .

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