Monday, June 17, 2024

How Prevalent Is Lyme Disease

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Moving Forward With Bartonella Research

Understanding the Persistent Symptoms in Lyme Disease | Johns Hopkins Medicine

In 2021, a new Bartonella Research Consortium was formed with a $4.8 million grant from The Steven & Alexandra Cohen Foundation.

The consortium includes Ed Breitschwerdt and Ricardo Maggi of North Carolina State University, Monica Embers of Tulane University, and Timothy Haystead of Duke University, who is continuing the work of the late Dr. Neal Spector.

The team is actively working towards creating a targeted treatment for bartonellosis and quickly getting the drug to the marketplace for use in both animals and humans.

Its time medicine moves beyond the one-pathogen-one-disease model. Lets face it, ticks are full of toxic soup. Because each pathogen interacts with the host in unique ways, extensive research is needed to understand all factors surrounding co-infections and Lyme disease.

Understanding the complex nature of these pathogens, how they impact the immune system, and how other bacterial and viral factors shape illness, will be key in improving public health.

Its time for the CDC, NIH, HHS, the Tick-Borne Disease Working Group and other researchers to start looking deeper into the prevalence of Bartonella infectionsnot just in patients with Lyme disease but in all patients with poorly-defined chronic illnesses.

Later Signs And Symptoms

  • Severe headaches and neck stiffness
  • Additional EM rashes on other areas of the body
  • Arthritis with severe joint pain and swelling, particularly the knees and other large joints.
  • Intermittent pain in tendons, muscles, joints, and bones
  • Heart palpitations or an irregular heart beat
  • Episodes of dizziness or shortness of breath
  • Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord

Percent Of World Population May Have Had Lyme Disease Research Finds

More than 14 percent of the worlds population may have had Lyme disease, an analysis released on Monday revealed.

The research, published in BMJ Global Health, is the result of an examination of nearly 90 studies. It offers an unprecedentedly robust picture of how common the tick-borne illness may be.

“As far as Im aware, this is the first global seroprevalence work thats been done,” said Dr. Peter Krause, a senior research scientist at the Yale School of Public Health who was not involved in the new study. Seroprevalence refers to the measurement of antibodies in blood.

For the analysis, the researchers compiled studies that looked at how common antibodies to the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease, are in humans. Of the more than 158,000 people involved in those studies, around 23,000 had the antibodies, suggesting they were either currently infected or had been in the past.

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in Europe and North America, but it’s not evenly distributed around the wold.

The new study showed that Central Europe had the highest share of residents with Lyme disease 21 percent compared to around 9 percent in North America. That’s similar to Krauses own research, which found that 11 percent of people sampled in New England in 2018 were positive for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Most U.S. cases of Lyme disease are in the Northeast and upper Midwest.

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Lyme Disease Prevalence Growing Over Time

Unfortunately, for every year that we do not address the problem and find a cure for those who remain ill, the number of people living with chronic Lyme disease increases. Very little research has been conducted regarding how best to treat patients who do not respond to short-term treatment approaches or who are not diagnosed early.

Should I Get Tested By The Nhs Or A Privately Funded Laboratory Is There A Difference

Pin on Mold Symptoms and Remedies

If patients have a recent tick exposure and symptoms of Lyme disease , guidance to NHS doctors in England is to take a blood sample and send it for testing at an NHS or UKHSA laboratory.

The tests work by looking for antibodies that a person infected with Lyme disease would produce.

The antibodies take some time to reach levels that can be detected,therefore, tests carried out within the first 4 weeks of infection may be negative and may need to be repeated on a fresh blood sample taken 4 to 6 weeks after the first test.

We recommend people exercise caution with private tests and speak to their NHS doctor for advice before spending money on private tests or treatments, as some private laboratories and clinics offer tests and treatments for Lyme disease which may not be supported by scientific evidence.

Diagnostic tests done outside the NHS may also produce false positives where the test shows positive for Lyme disease when the patient doesnt actually have it. Our advice is to seek help through the NHS.

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Early Signs And Symptoms

  • Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes may occur in the absence of rash
  • Erythema migrans rash:
  • Occurs in approximately 70 to 80 percent of infected persons
  • Begins at the site of a tick bite after a delay of 3 to 30 days
  • Expands gradually over several days reaching up to 12 inches or more across
  • May feel warm to the touch but is rarely itchy or painful
  • Sometimes clears as it enlarges, resulting in a target or bulls-eye appearance
  • May appear on any area of the body
  • Does not always appear as a classic erythema migrans rash
  • What Should You Do If You Find A Tick

    • Don’t touch the tick with your bare hand.

    • Use a pair of tweezers to remove the tick. Grab the tick firmly by its mouth or head as close to your skin as possible.

    • Pull up slowly and steadily without twisting until it lets go. Don’t squeeze the tick, and don’t use petroleum jelly, solvents, knives, or a lit match to kill the tick.

    • Save the tick. Place it in a plastic container or bag so it can be tested for disease, if needed.

    • Wash the bite area well with soap and water and put an antiseptic lotion or cream on the site.

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    Bartonella Is A Stealth Pathogen

    At a recent conference, Dr. Ed Breitschwerdt, DVM, a leading expert in the field, explained how Bartonella can invade and literally affect every system in the body. This includes the: cutaneous, muscular, skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular and nervous systems.

    He reviewed several recent studies implicating Bartonella infection in the brain in relation to several neuropsychiatric and autoimmune manifestations.

    According to Breitschwerdt, these bacteria are extremely difficult to find in humans because they are slow growing and can hide within cells.

    He explained how Bartonella, which are intracellular bacteria, have the ability to:

    • invade red blood cells, wall themselves off, and hide from the immune system
    • migrate into the nervous system via macrophages
    • penetrate the blood brain barrier via endothelial cells and pericytes
    • persist within the brain via microglial cells.

    Considering the number of different species and different methods of contracting Bartonella, Dr. Breitschwerdt ponders, Is Bartonellosis a modern-day hidden epidemic?

    Signs And Symptoms Of Untreated Lyme Disease

    Lyme Disease, Animation

    Seek medical attention if you observe any of these symptoms and have had a tick bite, live in an area known for Lyme disease, or have recently traveled to an area where Lyme disease occurs.

    Untreated Lyme disease can produce a wide range of symptoms, depending on the stage of infection. These include fever, rash, facial paralysis, and arthritis.

    The appearance of the erythema migrans rash can vary widely.

    • Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes may occur in the absence of rash
    • Erythema migrans rash :
    • Occurs in approximately 70 to 80 percent of infected persons
    • Begins at the site of a tick bite after a delay of 3 to 30 days
    • Expands gradually over several days reaching up to 12 inches or more across
    • May feel warm to the touch but is rarely itchy or painful
    • Sometimes clears as it enlarges, resulting in a target or bulls-eye appearance
    • May appear on any area of the body
    • Does not always appear as a classic erythema migrans rash

    Swollen Knee

    • Severe headaches and neck stiffness
    • Additional EM rashes on other areas of the body
    • Arthritis with severe joint pain and swelling, particularly the knees and other large joints.
    • Intermittent pain in tendons, muscles, joints, and bones
    • Heart palpitations or an irregular heart beat
    • Episodes of dizziness or shortness of breath
    • Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord

    Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

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    Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

    Around 75 percent of people who contract Lyme disease develop a rash at the site of the tick bite, according to the CDC. The rash often looks like a bulls-eye and usually appears three to 30 days after the bite it can expand up to 12 inches wide. It may feel warm to the touch but typically doesn’t itch or hurt.

    Other symptoms include fever, chills, headache, fatigue and muscle or joint aches shortly after a tick bite these can affect people who dont develop a rash, too. A small minority of people may not have symptoms, Krause said.

    But in more serious cases, people can develop severe headaches, neck stiffness, nerve pain, dizziness, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, arthritis, or sudden weakness or paralysis on one side of the face in the days or months after a bite.

    “There are people who’ve had even longer episodes of fatigue and not feeling well or brain fog, and we don’t have a complete understanding of it,” Krause said.

    Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria may persist for at least 16 months, according to one study, and up to 10 or 20 years, according to another.

    Although 14 percent might sound like a high infection rate to those unfamiliar with Lyme disease, Krause said the estimate sounds about right to him forpeople at high risk of infection, like those in rural areas.

    He estimated, however, that the general population would have a lower infection rate.

    How Many People Get Lyme Disease

    There is no way of knowing exactly how many people get Lyme disease. A recently released estimate based on insurance records suggests that each year approximately 476,000 Americans are diagnosed and treated for Lyme disease.1,2 This number is likely an over-estimate of actual infections because patients are sometimes treated presumptively in medical practice. Regardless, this number indicates a large burden on the health care system and the need for more effective prevention measures.

    Q: CDC previously estimated that ~300,000 people get Lyme disease each year.3,4 Why is this new number different?

    Both estimates are based in part on insurance claims data, however the 476,000 estimate uses more recent information covering the years 2010-2018. In addition, there are some differences in the detailed methods used to develop the two estimates. Its important to emphasize that 476,000 is the estimated number of people treated for Lyme disease and likely includes some patients who were not actually infected.

    Q: CDC also states that approximately 35,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported each year. Why is this number so different?

    Q: How often does CDC plan to estimate how many people get Lyme disease?

    As additional robust sources of data become available, CDC will use them to better understand how Lyme disease affects the American public.

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    What Happens At Your Appointment

    The GP will ask about your symptoms and consider any rash or recent tick bites you know about.

    Lyme disease can be difficult to diagnose. It has similar symptoms to other conditions and there’s not always an obvious rash.

    2 types of blood test are available to help confirm or rule out Lyme disease. But these tests are not always accurate in the early stages of the disease.

    You may need to be retested if you still have Lyme disease symptoms after a negative result.

    Data From 19000 Ticks

    Home [borellia.weebly.com]

    To build their models, the research team took data collected from nearly 19,000 blacklegged ticks between 2009 and 2018 across hundreds of sites within New York state.

    They assessed how numbers of infected and uninfected ticks at hundreds of locations over more than a decade aligned with local environmental features falling in four broad categories:

    1) landscape factors such as elevation, fire history, and distance to infrastructure like roads

    2) vertebrate host population sizes, including people, bears, birds, and deer

    3) surveillance conditions including local temperature and humidity at the time of collection as well as the effort devoted to collecting specimens and

    4) climate measures such as monthly temperature averages, precipitation, and days with below-freezing temperatures.

    Running various groupings of these variables through powerful computer models, the researchers could tease out which ones were most influential in determining infectivity rates.

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    Connecticut State Department Of Public Health

    COVID-19 Community Levels Map Update, Jan. 13, 2023: The CDC has listed seven Connecticut CountiesFairfield, Hartford, Litchfield, Middlesex, New Haven, Tolland, and Windham Countiesin the High/Orange category as part of its weekly COVID-19 Community Levels update. Only New London County is listed in the Medium/Yellow category. Because all eight Connecticut counties are either in the High or Medium categories, the Connecticut Department of Public Health recommends that all residents consider wearing a mask in public indoor spaces. People who are at high risk for severe illness should consider additional measures to minimize their exposure to COVID-19 and other respiratory illnesses. Visit the CDC COVID-19 Community Levels Map for updates.

    Please visit covidtests.gov to request four free COVID-19 self-test kits from the Federal Government. Find a location that has a supply of COVID-19 therapeutics as part of the Test to Treat initiative here. The complete DPH COVID-19 toolbox is located at ct.gov/coronavirus.

    Protect Yourself From Tick Bites

    Know where to expect ticks. Blacklegged ticks live in moist and humid environments, particularly in and near wooded or grassy areas. You may get a tick on you during outdoor activities around your home or when walking through leaves and bushes. To avoid ticks, walk in the center of trails and avoid walking through tall bushes or other vegetation.

    Repel ticks on skin and clothing. Use Environmental Protection Agency -registered insect repellents containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, para-menthane-diol, or 2-undecanone. EPAs helpful search tool can help you find the product that best suits your needs. Always follow product instructions. Parents should apply this product to their children, avoiding hands, eyes, and mouth. Use products that contain permethrin on clothing. Treat clothing and gear, such as boots, pants, socks and tents with products containing 0.5% permethrin. It remains protective through several washings. Pre-treated clothing is available and may be protective longer.

    Read Also: How Many Ticks Have Lyme Disease

    When Should I See My Healthcare Provider

    If you feel sick after having spent time in areas where ticks might live, you should make an appointment with your healthcare provider.

    If you received a Lyme disease diagnosis and you dont feel well after taking all of your antibiotics, contact your provider. This is especially true if you have symptoms like a stiff neck or mental confusion.

    The Rise And Fall Of A Lyme Disease Vaccine

    Pretest Probability of Lyme Disease

    The best way to avoid a tick bite is simply to stay out of places where they are prevalent: wooded, bushy areas with tall grass. If you do visit this type of environment, Krause said, apply insect repellant and wear long sleeves with long pants tucked into socks.

    “If you go into a wooded area, you have to do tick checks later,” he said.

    People who get a tick bite can seek antibiotics, but Krause said they don’t always eliminate the symptoms.

    “What appears to be the case at least there’s some reasonable evidence for this is that although the Lyme organism is killed with antibiotics, the organism itself doesn’t break down very well. It sort of hangs around in a dead form,” he said.

    He added: “We really do need a vaccine. Thats probably the best hope for us to really get control of it.”

    The Food and Drug Administration approved a vaccine called LYMErix in 1998 that was shown to prevent Lyme disease in clinical trials. ButGlaxoSmithKline, the developer of that vaccine, pulled it off the market in 2002.

    “It worked, but the company stopped using it because it took three injections and there was a group of people who claimed, falsely, that it was causing arthritis,” Krause said.

    Krause said another Lyme vaccine could become available in a couple of years. A candidate from Pfizer has shown early promise in trials.

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    How Is Lyme Disease Spread

    Lyme disease is spread by the bite of an infected black-legged tick. The tick usually must be attached to a person for at least 24 hours before it can spread the germ. Black-legged ticks in Massachusetts can also carry the germs that cause babesiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis). These ticks are capable of spreading more than one type of germ in a single bite.

    Remove Attached Ticks Quickly And Correctly

    Remove an attached tick with fine-tipped tweezers as soon as you notice it. If a tick is attached to your skin for less than 24 hours, your chance of getting Lyme disease is extremely small however, other diseases may be transmitted more quickly.

    Over the next few weeks, watch for signs or symptoms of Lyme disease such as rash or fever. See a healthcare provider if you have signs or symptoms. For more information, see tick removal.

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