Friday, June 17, 2022

Residual Effects Of Lyme Disease

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Resources: Lyme Disease Treatments

Lyme Disease Treatment – Johns Hopkins (4 of 5)

Before treating Lyme disease, its important to get a diagnosis. The following resources provide information about Lyme disease and how to treat it.

Why Is Chronic Lyme Disease Chronic

Several factors may account for persistent symptoms. These include low grade persistent infection which either causes damage directly or indirectly through the inflammatory and toxic effects of an activated immune response, permanent damage as may occur in brain injured patients, or a Lyme-triggered autoimmune reaction.

The post-infectious inflammatory hypothesis also is supported by several lines of evidence. For example, patients with Lyme arthritis who carry the HLA-DR4 or DR2 allele are more vulnerable to developing a chronic antibiotic-resistant arthritis. Indirect evidence exists to support molecular mimicry as at least one possible explanation for persistent symptoms. For example, the flagellin protein can generate antibodies that cross-react with myelin basic protein, thereby contributing to axonal dysfunction. Finally, remnants of pieces of the spirochete may result in a persistent activation of the immune system, causing the production of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and nitric oxide. These cytokines produce fatigue and malaise, two of the more prominent symptoms experienced by patients with chronic Lyme disease.

© 2021 Lyme education & research fundraising in Canada. KWD

Which Antibodies Does The Vaccine From Merial Induce

It is a recombinant vaccine based on Osp A. Vaccinated animals should develop high antibody levels to OspA and maintain negative antibody levels to the remaining two antigens. Infected/non-infected animals can be identified based on OspC and OspF antibody values. Detection of the early Lyme infection stage is possible after using this vaccine.

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Supporting Patients With Long

    There has been controversy about Lyme disease , first about whether people really can have persistent problems after Lyme disease, and then about whether more antibiotic treatment is beneficial if they do still have symptoms. This overview compiles into one summary information about what the studies have found about the cause of the symptoms and the possible treatments, so that GPs are better able to advise patients who have the long-term problems.

    Some patients have persistent symptoms after LD, despite having had the recommended antibiotic treatment. A small proportion of LD patients have a relevant delay in treatment, which may increase their risk for the development of problems that can last a long time, perhaps a few years. These delays can sometimes result from the difficulty of diagnosis, particularly as many LD cases do not have the erythema migrans rash. Catching LD while holidaying abroad may make a delay more likely because it may be some time before the patient returns home and sees a doctor. The Royal College of General Practitioners has prepared an LD toolkit and mentions post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome as one term used to describe these long-term problems. PTLDS can significantly impact quality of life and recovery may be extremely slow, with no apparent improvement from one month to the next, although very subtle improvement may be seen from one year to the next.

    Does Treatment Immediately After A Tick Bite Negate Signs Of Early Infection

    For Lyme disease patients, a new approach aims to ease residual effects ...

    Not every tick carries B. burgdorferi. The infection rate of ticks also varies with geographic region. Therefore, treatment should not be performed based on a tick bite alone. If the tick was found on the animal it can be sent in for B. burgdorferi PCR. PCR for Anaplasma can be performed simultaneously if requested. If the tick was infected, early treatment can be considered. However, a tick must feed for at least 24 hours on an animal or human for B. burgdorferi transmission to occur. Only a serological test will confirm whether transmission of B. burgdorferi occurred and the animal was infected. Antibodies can be detected in infected animals as early as 3-4 weeks after infection. Lyme Multiplex testing is recommended after that time. Treatment can be initiated immediately afterwards if antibody levels are positive. Treatment during this early infection phase is generally very effective.

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    Lyme Disease In The Us

    To understand the rapid increase of Lyme disease throughout the country, its important to know what causes Lyme disease and where its most prevalent. People with Lyme disease can get a rash in the pattern of a bulls-eye, feel ill with flu-like symptoms, and experience joint pain. Long-term effects of Lyme disease can include neurological problems, chronic joint inflammation, and irregular heartbeat.

    Based on the CDCs Lyme disease map data for 2019, the condition has been most prevalent in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, and Massachusetts. Lyme disease is far outpacing other infectious diseases in the U.S, with 618% more cases than West Nile virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C combined, according to the Global Lyme Alliance.

    Lyme disease goes beyond the borders of the U.S. For example, Lyme disease affects 69 cases per 100,000 people in southern Sweden and 206 cases per 100,000 people in Slovenia, according to Medscape. With the prevalence of Lyme disease extending to other parts of the world, including Canada, Europe, and Asia, its become a global concern.

    When Should I Call The Doctor

    If a tick bites you, call your doctor. Other conditions can cause similar symptoms, so it’s always a good idea to discuss them with your doctor. That way you can get checked and treated, if needed. Call right away if you get a red-ringed rash, lasting flu-like symptoms, joint pain or a swollen joint, or facial paralysis.

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    Study Shows Evidence Of Severe And Lingering Symptoms In Some After Treatment For Lyme Disease

    In a study of 61 people treated for the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, Johns Hopkins researchers conclude that fatigue…

    In a study of 61 people treated for the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, Johns Hopkins researchers conclude that fatigue, pain, insomnia and depression do indeed persist over long periods of time for some people, despite largely normal physical exams and clinical laboratory testing.

    Post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome is a real disorder that causes severe symptoms in the absence of clinically detectable infection, says John N. Aucott, M.D., associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and director of the Johns Hopkins Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center.

    The findings, published in the December issue of Frontiers in Medicine, could spur further investigation into the cause of persistent symptoms, a source of medical controversy. As Lyme disease rates have steadily climbed in the United States since it was first recognized in the mid-1970s, so have reports of a collection of symptoms that patients commonly refer to as chronic Lyme disease. Experts in the field have questioned the validity of this term because of the lack of direct evidence in this group of patients of ongoing infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease.

    Other Johns Hopkins researchers who participated in this study include Alison W. Rebman, Ting Yang, Erica A. Mihm, Mark J. Soloski and Cheryl Novak.

    Why Are Antibiotics The First Line Of Treatment For Lyme Disease

    Lyme Disease and Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome by John Aucott, MD

    The use of antibiotics is critical for treating Lyme disease. Without antibiotic treatment, the Lyme disease causing bacteria can evade the host immune system, disseminate through the blood stream, and persist in the body. Antibiotics go into the bacteria preferentially and either stop the multiplication of the bacteria or disrupt the cell wall of the bacteria and kill the bacteria . By stopping the growth or killing the bacteria the human host immune response is given a leg up to eradicate the residual infection. Without antibiotics, the infection in Lyme disease can evade the host immune system and more readily persist.

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    Thuja Homeopathic Treatment For Delusions As A Result Of Lyme Disease

    The homeopathic medicine Thuja is prepared by using the leaves and twigs of the thuja plant. Thuja tree belongs to the Cupressaceae family. Out of five, two species of Thuja trees are found in North America and the remaining three species are found growing in eastern regions of Asia. Thuja is a well-indicated remedy for delusions and has given good results in Lyme disease patients who have fixed ideas and delusions in later part of the disease. Delusions as if a strange person is by the side and delusions as if the body were fragile are present. There is dullness of mind with sadness. The person feels depressed, isolated and alone.

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    Evaluation Of Study Subjects

    Follow-up evaluations, which were performed at a field clinic in East Lyme, Connecticut, 19941996, included a medical history and physical examination, questionnaires about current symptoms and health status, and neuropsychological tests. The study was approved by the Human Investigations Committee at New England Medical Center. Information about current symptoms was first obtained by a symptom questionnaire, and the answers and the past medical history were discussed with a single physician investigator . The physical examination, which was also performed by that investigator, included examination of the joints, a tender point examination, and a detailed neurologic examination of strength testing, light touch sensation, pinprick, position sensation, reflexes, extraocular muscles, and facial and trigeminal nerve function.

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    Stage : Early Localised Lyme Disease

    The symptoms for this stage normally begin within a few days to weeks after infection from the tick bite. In some cases of Lyme disease, you may not notice signs of infection during this stage.

    The bacteria begin to multiply in the bloodstream, with the first sign being that of a red, circular rash. It might look a lot like a bulls eye.

    This rash will develop at the site of the tick bite. It is not painful or itchy, just warm to touch. It is known as erythema migrans and will most likely disappear within four weeks.

    With or without the rash, you may develop flu-like symptoms. These can include:

    • A loss of energy
    • Vision changes

    Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    For Lyme disease patients, a new approach aims to ease residual effects ...
    • I found a tick embedded in my skin, but I cant get it out. What should I do?
    • Ive been bitten by a tick. Do I need to be seen?
    • Do I need a blood test to confirm Lyme disease?
    • Which antibiotic is best for me?
    • How long will I have to take the antibiotic?
    • What tick or insect repellent should I use for me or my child?
    • How long will the symptoms last?
    • What should I do if I still dont feel well a long time after I was bitten?

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    Defining Patient Subgroups: Post

    Patients with persistent symptoms related to Lyme disease likely represent a heterogeneous population, which includes previously untreated patients, as well as those treated patients who remain symptomatic. As a result, some will manifest primarily patient-reported symptoms while others will present with symptoms in conjunction with objective, physical findings. This heterogeneity is further complicated by variation in terminology and the definitions used by different groups in the field.

    A schematic of clinical- and research-defined patient subgroups among those with persistent symptoms associated with Lyme disease . The size of each patient subgroup is not meant to represent actual population frequency, as prevalence data is extremely limited. IDSA, Infectious Diseases Society of America ILADS, International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society CLD-PT, Chronic Lyme Disease-Previously Treated CLD-U, Chronic Lyme Disease-Untreated IgG, Immunoglobulin G CFS, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome FM, Fibromyalgia.

    What Are The Side Effects Of Lyme Disease Treatments

    Antibiotics, like all medications, have the potential for side effects. Any antibiotic can cause skin rashes, and if an itchy red rash develops while on antibiotics, a patient should see their physician. Sometimes symptoms worsen for the first few days on an antibiotic. This is called a Herxheimer reaction and occurs when the antibiotics start to kill the bacteria. In the first 24 to 48 hours, dead bacterial products stimulate the immune system to release inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that can cause increased fever and achiness. This should be transient and last no more than a day or two after the initiation of antibiotics.

    The most common side effect of the penicillin antibiotics is diarrhea, and occasionally even serious cases caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile. This bacterial overgrowth condition occurs because antibiotics kill the good bacteria in our gut. It can be helpful to use probiotics to restore the good bacteria and microbiome balance.

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    What Causes Lyme Disease

    Lyme disease is caused by an infected tick bite that introduces the Lyme disease bacteria into the bloodstream. Ticks can bite any part of the human body, but commonly go for hidden areas like the scalp, armpits, and groin.

    Ticks must usually be attached for at least 36 hours to transmit Lyme disease. Then, the bacterium quickly leaves the bloodstream and moves into tissues, sometimes triggering symptoms like heart problems and arthritis.

    Learn more about how to spot and treat a tick bite.

    How To Prevent Post

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    While you may not be able to prevent post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, you can take precautions to prevent coming into direct contact with infected ticks. The following practices can reduce your likelihood of getting Lyme disease and developing persistent symptoms.

    If a tick bites you, contact your doctor. You should be observed for 30 days for signs of Lyme disease. You should also learn the signs of early Lyme disease and seek prompt treatment if you think youre infected. Early antibiotic intervention may reduce your risk of developing chronic symptoms.

    The signs of early Lyme disease can occur from 3 to 30 days after a bite from an infected tick. Look for:

    • a red, expanding bulls-eye rash at the site of the tick bite

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    Ongoing Symptoms Of Lyme Disease

    A few people who are diagnosed and treated for Lyme disease continue to have symptoms, like tiredness, aches and loss of energy, that can last for years.

    These symptoms are often compared to fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Its not clear why this happens to some people and not others. This means theres also no agreed treatment.

    Speak to a doctor if your symptoms come back, or do not improve, after treatment with antibiotics.

    The doctor may be able to offer you further support if needed, such as:

    • referral for a care needs assessment
    • telling your employer, school or higher education institution that you require a gradual return to activities
    • communicating with children and families social care

    Page last reviewed: 05 July 2021 Next review due: 05 July 2024

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    What Is Late Lyme Disease

    Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is caused by an infection with the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacteria is disseminated through tick bites. Infected ticks usually bite small mammals, who do not develop any kind of infection from the bacteria. When humans are exposed to B. Burgdorferi from a tick bite, however, they can develop Lyme disease.

    People who work outside or spend time in woodland areas, where there is greater potential for exposure to tick bites, are most at risk of infection.

    Lyme disease is a condition which progresses in stages:

  • A person will initially develop early localized lyme disease, in which the bacteria have not yet spread through the body. At this stage, which generally has its onset days or weeks after the tick bite, a personâs symptoms will usually include a fever, fatigue, and a rash, called the Erythema Migrans rash, which has a distinctive bullsâ eye shape and affects around two thirds of people who develop Lyme disease. See this resource for more information on symptoms and treatment of early localized Lyme disease.
  • If Lyme disease is not diagnosed in either of these early stages, and is not treated effectively with antibiotics, the bacteria that cause LD can spread throughout the body from the site of the tick bite, resulting in late disseminated Lyme disease, or late lyme disease. The onset of symptoms and complications of late disseminated Lyme disease is usually around 6-36 months after the original infection.
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    Azlocillin Comes Out On Top

    The drug, which is not on the market, was tested in mouse models of Lyme disease at seven-day, 14-day and 21-day intervals and found to eliminate the infection. For the first time, azlocillin was also shown to be effective in killing drug-tolerant forms of B. burgdorferi in lab dishes, indicating that it may work as a therapy for lingering symptoms of Lyme disease.

    Pothineni and Rajadas have patented the compound for the treatment of Lyme disease and are working with a company to develop an oral form of the drug. Researchers plan to conduct a clinical trial.

    Rajadas is also a professor of bioengineering and therapeutic sciences at the University of California-San Francisco.

    Other Stanford co-authors are Hari-Hara S. K. Potula, PhD, senior research scientist postdoctoral scholars Aditya Ambati, PhD, and Venkata Mallajosyula, PhD senior research scientist Mohammed Inayathullah, PhD and intern Mohamed Sohail Ahmed.

    A researcher at Loyola College in India also contributed to the work.

    The study was funded by the Bay Area Lyme Foundation and Laurel STEM Fund.

    • Tracie White

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